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Wages in Global Perspective: Monitoring Wages Worldwide through WageIndicator - September 2017

This year the Yearly Conference of AIAS is entitled ‘Wages in Global Perspective’, referring to the achievement and potential of a global data tool with which AIAS is closely connected, that is, the WageIndicator. This Internet-based tool of comparing and sharing wages resulted from a joint initiative of WageIndicator Foundation director Paulien Osse and AIAS research coordinator Kea Tijdens back in 1999. Over the years, AIAS has played its role in the Foundation’s Supervisory Board. Currently, WageIndicator has websites in 92 countries, and in 2016 nearly 40 million unique visitors consulted these websites. The sites present detailed information on various kinds of wages and salaries, putting them in their national context: real wages, bargained wages, minimum wages, living or decent wages. The response of the thousands of visitors filling out the related, continuous WageIndicator web survey allows a massive amount of analyses of the connection between wages on the one hand and personal and structural characteristics on the other, such as union membership, industry, occupations, skills, migration patterns, and much more. Such analyses have already resulted in over 450 books, reports and journal articles. At the conference a range of researchers will present outcomes of WageIndicator-based research. Improving the representativeness of a voluntary web survey like that of WageIndicator represents a challenge in itself, and presentations will also deal with this issue. Finally, a forum of internationally reputed researchers will question ‘What’s next for WageIndicator-based Research?’, focusing on research perspectives and challenges. During the conference techniques will be used as to optimize audience participation, such that presenters and forum members can consider questions and remarks from the audience at an early stage. This report shows all presentations, papers and documents from the conference. 
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AIAS Jaarconferentie 2017 - July 2017

Vrijdag 1 september wordt op de Jaarconferentie 2017 van AIAS, het instituut waar wij werken, de focus gericht op de Loonwijzer. Onder het motto 'Wages in Global Perspective' (de voertaal is Engels) presenteren experts van heinde en verre dan onderzoeksresultaten gebaseerd op Loonwijzergegevens. De grote betekenis van lonen, zowel voor individuen als voor de maatschappij, staat op deze conferentie centraal. Vooral sinds het uitkomen, in 2014, van het boek van Thomas Piketty 'Kapitaal in de 2lste eeuw' heeft het thema van een rechtvaardige inkomensverdeling zijn plaats in de publieke discussie hervonden. Niettemin vraagt de stand van dat debat om verdieping. Zo lijkt zeker op wereldschaal de discussie over de vormen en vorming van lonen die sociale rechtvaardigheid dichterbij kunnen brengen, nog maar net op gang te komen. Gelijktijdig groeit internationaal de aandacht voor het economische belang van het stimuleren van lonen. Allereerst draait het dan om het traditionele thema van het herstel van de effectieve vraag naar producten en diensten en langs deze weg van economische groei en werkgelegenheid. Onlangs wees de International Labour Organization (ILO) er op dat dit herstel in veel landen in Azië en LatijnsAmerika maar ook in Zuid-Europa nog steeds urgent is. Maar met dit thema komen ook strategieën van regeringen en kapitaalgroepen om te concurreren door het laag houden van lonen meer en meer onder vuur te liggen, ook bij internationale organisaties als de ILO, de OECD en het IMF.
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Indian Labour Market and Position of Women: Gender Pay Gap in the Indian Formal Sector - July 2017

Gender diversity and its consequences in relation to work and economy are much discussed topics in India today. Women constitute almost half the population of India (48%) (Census India, 2011) and thus half of its potential labour force. But the LFPR of women in India has been constantly declining and stands at merely 28.6% for 2014 (The World Bank, 2016). This implies that half of the potential talent base in India is under-utilized (Zahidi & Ibarra, 2010). Though the Indian Government has taken various measures to prevent discrimination against women workers, there still exists a wide gender pay gap in India and in fact no country has been able to close the gender pay gap completely (Tijdens and Klaveren, 2012). The issue of wage inequality is also central to United Nations’ SDGs, “decent work for all women and men, and lower inequality, as among the key objectives of a new universal policy”, which highlight the importance of measuring and devising a mechanism to reduce the pay gap (ILO, 2016). This paper quantifies the magnitude of gender-based disparities that women face in the organized sector of the Indian Labour Market, offers possible explanations for the same and tracks changes over time. Using the WageIndicator (Paycheck.in) continuous and voluntary web salary survey dataset and OLS regression analysis (Blau and Kahn, 2016), the paper identifies the key drivers, trends and reasons of the gender pay gap in the Indian labour market. Key findings include that gender pay gap increases with age, education and skill, occupational status and is significantly higher for married women than single women. To survive in an ever-changing world, in terms of political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal aspects is the challenge of each passing day. Moreover, to be able to subsist in a dynamic environment, there is a need for a new mind-set that can discard old prejudices and inertia, and accept new ideas and solutions (Hausmann, Tyson, & Zahidi, 2011). The paper explores and expands on the different approaches used by various organizations to counter the gender pay gap. We conclude by providing several concrete and innovative policy recommendations on how to enable Indian women and men to overcome gendered barriers in the labour market. 
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Are Collective Agreements around the World doing their job in increasing Equality and Promoting Work/Family Balance Arrangements? The Analysis from the WageIndicator Database - July 2017

Women being discriminated because of pregnancy, working parents struggling to find the time to care for kids, employees whose career is spoiled by inequality in training opportunities: all over the world the lives of millions are affected by their working conditions. The responsibility to provide decent working provisions concerns - among other actors - the governments: ratifying ILO conventions is the first step a country can take in this regard, followed by enacting suitable legal regulations and enforcing those effectively. However, national labour law is often not sufficient, either because it doesn’t cover all of the issues affecting workers, or because it is too general. The role of collective bargaining could then be crucial to improve the effect of the labour law, by giving better provisions, tackling the issues in a more detailed way, and adapting the regulations for the workers of a specific sector or company. But is this really happening? Are collective agreements improving the provisions of national regulations? Where is this tool being used in the most effective way? This paper strives to answer these questions, focusing in particular on the capability of collective bargaining in guaranteeing equality in the workplace and improving the lives of women workers (and/or other workers with difficult life-work balance conditions) around the world. Gender equality, paternity/maternity leave, childcare provisions, discrimination, and sexual harassment are among the topics examined in this research. The analysis covers the content of 700 recent collective agreements (valid in 2010 or later) coming from 46 countries in Africa, Latin America, Europe and South Asia. These agreements have been collected by the WageIndicator Foundation and are coded in the WageIndicator Collective Agreements Database, a work which is made possible by the contributions of several funders. Clauses related to work and family balance arrangements are common in the analysed agreements: more than 80% of them have provisions on such topics. Continents and countries address each topic in a different way. For example, in some cases South Asian agreements are more advanced (like in clauses prohibiting discrimination and violence), and in other instances it is Africa that gives the best provisions, like in maternity-related clauses. Some countries are leading the way – each in a different topic - and could be taken as a model to follow: among others, Ghana (breastfeeding breaks), Costa Rica (paternity leave) and Indonesia (violence and discrimination, sexual harassment). Data also show that equality issues are not similarly addressed: less than half of the agreements contain clauses about that.
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Raising Awareness and Compliance on 48 Themes in 152 Countries with WageIndicator DecentWorkCheck - July 2017

This paper presents a new way of comparing labour market regulations worldwide, i.e., through worker rights perspective. It documents a new tool, called DecentWorkCheck and uses it to analyse de-jure labour market institutions around 48 themes in 152 countries of the world. This selfassessment tool uses substantive elements of decent work agenda and converts these into legal indicators/questions that workers can easily respond to and know whether they are employed in decent working conditions. The comparative work aims to raise awareness among the masses about their rights and obligations at the workplace. The work presents a great opportunity to enhance worker awareness about their rights and can be expanded to further countries. The work is equally useful for academics, employers and policy makers worldwide. It maps 33 labour law indicators for 152 countries of the world and analyses labour law changes for more than 70 countries over the last five years (2012-17). The paper contends that compliance with labour legislation can be improved by increasing labour regulation awareness among the masses including workers and employers. WageIndicator’s work on labour law database creates this opportunity to increase awareness on labour rights in the most cost effective way. In 2016 alone, 39.5 million Internet users visited labour law pages on 92 WageIndicator country websites.
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Estimating Living Wage Globally - July 2017

In the last decade the concept of living wage has received renewed international attention. This paper contributes to the living wage discussion and introduces a method to calculate living wage globally. The proposed approach is innovative in the way that it uses prices collected through web-surveys in order to provide timely, reasonably accurate and globally comparable estimates. The calculation is based on more than 1,730,000 prices collected since 2014 through the Cost of Living Survey initiated by WageIndicator. The survey is specifically designed to ask web visitors about consumer prices of about 100 goods and services. The estimated living wage represents the amount of money sufficient to cover food expenses, accommodation costs, transportation expenses and other expenses together with a provision for unexpected events. Finally living wage is corrected for income tax, and social contributions to be comparable to minimum wage and real wages which are gross earnings.  The living wage is estimated for 54 countries (of which half are low and middle income countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America) and rates are contrasted with the indicators of national poverty line and national statutory minimum wages. Living wage is normatively based and offers an additional metric of economic adequacy that reflects the needs of workers and their cost of living.
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The importance of foreign language skills in the labour markets of Central and Eastern Europe: assessment based on data from online job portals - June 2017

This paper investigates the role of foreign language skills in the Visegrad Four countries’ labour markets using data obtained from key online vacancy boards in these countries and from an online wage survey. Firstly, it considers the demand for language skills based on vacancies and then builds on this information by analysing the wage premium associated with foreign language skills on the occupation and individual level. The results indicate that English language knowledge is highly in demand in the Visegrad region, followed by the command of German language. Particularly, English proficiency appears to be correlated with higher wages, when controlled for common wage determinants in a regression.
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(Un)beliveable wages? An analysis of minimum wage policies in Europe from a living wage perspective - June 2017

Minimum wage is one of the most debated issues in the labour policy area. Often perceived as a trade-off between employment and equality in earnings, the debate on minimum wage is highly polarized. With regard to the undergoing discussions on the Social Pillar of the European integration, we aim to extend the debate to include the aspect of minimum living standards, by empirically showing the gap between minimum wages and the minimum living wages in the peripheral countries of the European Union.
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Can Airbnb provide livable incomes to property owners? - June 2017

In this paper, we explore the Airbnb payoffs on the macro (global), mezzo (national) and micro (city) level. The main aim of the paper is to pilot a methodology for exploring, whether Airbnb can serve as a source for income replacement. Combining a variety of data sources on the affluence of a given location, we aim to estimate the potential payoffs to property owners from renting out a property on Airbnb vis-à-vis the living cost in that place. We discover a great variety of payoffs between individual countries, regions and city districts, which appear to be quite complex and cannot be universally simplified to indicators such as prosperity or tourists visits. Many interesting patterns found in this study would require further examination.
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An Analysis of Wages and Collective Bargaining in Tanzania - 2016 - May 2017

This report analyses to state of wage bargaining in Tanzania looking at the labour/employment legislation, the current minimum wage and how they are derived by sector. The report also analyses the conditions of service in the collective bargaining agreements focusing on what some of the agreements provide for. The methods used to compile this report were both qualitative and quantitative; it included carrying out key informant interviews with some experts at Trade Union Congress of Tanzania (TUCTA) and the Association of Tanzania Employers (ATE). However, the report compilation was majorly based on desk research, where documentary evidence on policies on wages and collective bargaining agreements were reviewed.
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Minimum and Living Wages in Zambia: Some Analytical Considerations for Improving Workers’ Conditions - May 2017

Across the world, minimum wage rules play an important role in shaping the wage structure among the lowest paid (ILO, 2010). However, the character of effects depends on a vector of interlinkages and interactions with structures of collective bargaining and how the level of the minimum wage relate with the living conditions for workers and typical families. Using the Wage Indicator Foundation Database, this paper sets out to analyse how minimum wages in Zambia relate with the cost of living for workers and typical families in order to understand what would constitute a model collective agreement in Zambia and thus inform trade union strategies and actions for improving workers’ conditions.
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Scores in groot- en detailhandel - March 2017

Vorige keer bespraken we uitkomsten van het WIBAR-3 project, waarin we onderzochten hoe de positie van vakbonden in CAO-onderhandelingen kan worden verbeterd. We gaan nu nader in op de relatie tussen management en vakbond in twee van de vijf onderzochte sectoren, namelijk groot- en detailhandel. Bij elkaar telden die twee sectoren in de 23 betrokken EU-landen in 2014 ruim 23 miljoen werknemers, verdeeld over 230 bedrijven. Er is nagegaan hoe de relatie tussen management en vakbond (hierna MAN-VB) scoorde op een rangorde van 1 (totaal geen relatie) tot 5 (coöperatieve relatie, vastgelegd in overeenkomsten of verklaringen).
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Institutional arrangements regarding Minimum Wage Setting in 195 countries - February 2017

ILO Conventions C026 and C131 challenge countries to implement minimum wage-fixing mechanisms. How many countries do have a statutory minimum wage ((S)MW)? How many apply differentiated MWs? How many set MW by Collective Bargaining (CB)? And how many do not have either of these? This paper adresses these four questions. On this behalf we merged 12 databases with information about MW fixing mechanisms and their coverage (Eurofound, ICTWSS, five ILO databases, MACHequity, three WageIndicator databases, WorldBank). They vary regarding years and countries covered and characteristics coded. Europea and Latin America were best represented, co Oceania least. The merged database includes information about 195 countries for five years (2011 – 2015). Clearly, the absence of a single institution responsible for collecting MW policies and rates impedes producing adequate wordwide overviews. Against this backdrop we present and discuss outcomes of our inventory. Based on the harmonised database (97 countries with data covering all five years) we found that between 2011 and 2015 the percentage of countries with a SMW policy increased from 92% to 94%. According to the merged database (all 195 countries) between 75% and 93% of these countries applied a MW-fixing mechanism in at least one year. If a differentiated MW is defined as covering part of the dependent labour force only data is available for OECD countries and some others, indicating that 15% of the 48 countries at stake applied a partial minimum wage. If a differentiated MW is defined as covering the entire dependent labour force though with varying rates, a database of 76 countries with a SMW allowed to conclude that 53% applied differentiated MWs. Most breakdowns were by industry, followed by geographical areas and occupation. We found that countries with multiple MWs tend to mimic CB outcomes. Using the merged database we found that less than 3% of developing countries applied MW fixing through CB. Across Europe this share was considerably higher but decreasing. We detailed the underlying changes. Finally, we studied which countries recently did not have a MW; this was the case (over at least three years) for 16 countries.
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Multinationals en vakbonden - January 2017

In het zojuist afgesloten WIBAR-3 project hebben we onderzocht hoe de positie van vakbonden en CAO-onderhandelingen kan worden verbeterd. Met dit doel zijn voor 23 landen de vijf grootste bedrijven geselecteerd in vijf sectoren: metaal en elektrotechniek, groothandel, detailhandel, ICT en transport en telecom. Zo kwamen we op 575 bedrijven. Daarvan waren er 451 onderdeel van een multinational, 54 waren staatsbedrijven (voornamelijk telecom) en 70 opereerden puur nationaal. Vervolgens is er per bedrijf nagegaan hoe de relatie tussen management en vakbond (hierna MAN-VB) scoorde op een rangorde van 1 (totaal geen relatie) tot 5 (cooperatieve relatie, vastgelegd in overeenkomsten of verklaringen). 
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Living Wages in Nigeria - December 2016

Minimum wage rates are under discussion in Nigeria. Since 2011, the minimum wage remained unchanged at Nigerian Naira (NGN) 18,000. In April 2016, the Nigerian Labour Congress and the Trade Union Congress (TUC), the two confederal labour organisations in the country, proposed NGN 56,000 as the new national minimum wage to the Federal Government. Will this be a living wage? In June 2016, the Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO.nl) asked the WageIndicator Foundation to work out an estimate for living wages in Nigeria, focusing on Lagos State.
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Occupations Observatory - Methodological Note - August 2016

As a result of technological progress and economic change, new occupations have emerged in the labour market while other occupations have become redundant and disappeared. Along with these new and emerging occupations, new skills have been introduced that can be developed through formal education, on-the-job training or learning-by-doing (or in some other way). This paper presents the Occupations Observatory, which we have created with the aim of providing up-to-date information on these changes in the labour market – reflected in the rise of new occupations and their corresponding skill changes – to policy-makers, researchers, educational institutes, job seekers and many other stakeholders (and how occupational dynamics feed into the occupational classification schemes). We focus not only on new occupations that did not exist before but also on new occupations in terms of recognition, awareness and importance.
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Gender Equality and Work/Family Balance Arrangements in Collective Agreements in Africa, Latin America and South East Asia, on the basis of the WageIndicator CBA Database - December 2015

ILO regularly receives requests for support to constituents on how to strengthen gender equality through collective bargaining. Also the 2009 International Labour Conference Resolution and Conclusions concerning gender equality at the heart of decent work makes specific mention of how collective bargaining can ensure the systematic integration of gender dimensions into labour market and macroeconomic policies in general, and address specific issues such as gender pay gap, enhanced protection against discrimination, work-family measures, and childcare infrastructure, sexual violence and harassment, and the promotion of female employment . ILO engaged the WageIndicator Foundation, which, because of its extensive Collective Agreement Database, can provide data on clauses in collective agreements that enhance gender equality (e.g. maternity protection, violence at work, equal pay) in a range of sectors, countries and at different negotiation levels in order to analyse content and identify innovative clauses about work and family arrangements and gender issues.
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GPG clauses in collective agreements, including summaries of the discussions in the trade unions - WITA GPG project - October 2016

Summary: Social partners’ further sensibilisation, creation of usable tools and measures to identify, monitor and fight GPG, promotion of training and creation of training materials at company level is a must to reach results in decreasing GPG. During the preparatory phase several good practices from EU countries and clauses to collective agreements were recollected. Following the discussions with employees’ and employers’ representatives in the three countries – Hungary, Spain and the Netherlands – the following clauses could be identified to wider use naturally always taking into consideration that in the different countries the different labour laws regulate the working and employment conditions. At the end of the day we could identify the following lessons on the base of the discussions and the following clauses to reduce GPG proved to be the most important...
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Salaire décent au Niger - October 2016

Les salaires minima et les salaires décents font l’objet de discussion. CNV International et la Fondation WageIndicator ont mis au point un concept et une application pour comprendre plus/maîtriser les salaires décents. Dans ce rapport, nous montrons ce que peut nous apporter la recherche sur le coût de la vie. 

La collecte de données sur le coût de la vie au Niger en juillet et en août 2016 a eu lieu dans trois régions : Dosso (sud-est, à 2 heures de la capitale), Maradi (sud-est, à un jour de route de la capitale) et la région de la capitale Niamey.
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Living wages in Niger - October 2016

Minimum wages and living wages are under discussion. CNV International and WageIndicator Foundation developed a concept and app to get more grip on living wages. In this report we show what research on cost of living can bring us. The data collection for cost of living in Niger during July and August 2016 took place in three regions: Dosso (south east, 2 hours from the capital), Maradi (south east, one day’s drive from the capital) and the capital region Niamey. 
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Living Wages in Cambodia - October 2016

Minimum wages and living wages are under discussion. CNV International and WageIndicator Foundation developed a concept and app to get more grip on living wages. In this report we show what research on cost of living can bring us. The data collection for cost of living in Cambodia took place in July and August 2016. The data collection took place in two regions in Cambodia: Mondul Kiri and capital region Phnom Penh. Mondul Kiri is an 6 hours’ drive from the capital and seen as small city/ rural region. 
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Toeslagen en vergoedingen - September 2016

Een van de internationale onderzoeksprojecten waar we momenteel aan meewerken betreft een oud maar nog steeds actueel thema: het verschil in beloning tussen mannen en vrouwen. Dit zogeheten WITA-project is toegespitst op de loonkloof tussen mannen en vrouwen. Een onderdeel van het project gaat over de kloof bij toeslagen en bonussen. Voor dit project zijn gegevens gebruikt uit de continue online Loonwijzer Salary Survey en de Mini-survey, verzameld tussen januari 2014 en juni 2016 in 24 lidstaten van de Europese Unie en in totaal betrekking hebbend op meer dan 500.000 werknemers. 
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Living Wage in Indonesia - September 2016

Minimum wages and living wages are under discussion. CNV International and WageIndicator Foundation developed a concept and app to get more grip on living wages. In this report we show what research on cost of living can bring us. The data collection for cost of living in Indonesia took place between June and August 2016. The data collection took place in 8 regions. The cost of living data collected point to an important finding: the minimum wage is not enough to fulfill the daily needs in some of the regions where our research took place.
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WageIndex Sector analysis of the Netherlands - September 2016

The main purpose of the fourth edition of the Loonwijzer – Monsterboard Wage Index report is to describe some of the key characteristics of the workforce in ten selected sectors of the Dutch labor market. In the first chapter, we study these ten following sectors: (i)       Agriculture, forestry, fishing, (ii)     Construction, technical consultancy, (iii)    Education, research, (iv)    Financial services, banking, insurance, (v)     Healthcare, caring services, social work,  (vi)    Hospitality, catering, tourism, (vii)    Manufacturing, (viii)   ICT services, (ix)    Legal and market consultancy, business activities, (x)     Transport, logistics. Like in the previous reports, in the Legal and market consultancy, business activities sector we also define the Marketing and communication sub-sector, and study key developments in this sub-sector as well. This Wage Index report focuses on the Dutch labour market, but for certain figures, where the data intake is sufficient, a comparison of Dutch figures with other major European countries is also included. The sample includes observations from the last two calendar years, 2014 and 2015, and most of the tables and graphs presented in this report provide a year-to-year comparison of the key figures from 2014 and 2015.
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This report is part of Workstream 1 ‘GPG analytical activities’ in the WITA GPG project, and specifically addresses Output 1 in this Workstream. Output 1 aims to methodologically explore the gender pay gap, with a focus on wages and monetary and non-monetary allowances. This is report 1.4 “Analyse the GPG in monetary and non-monetary allowances, such as extra pay, bonuses, payments in kind, social security contribution and entitlement, pay arrears, etc. in EU-28+Turkey”. For the analysis in this report we used the data from the continuous online WageIndicator Salary Survey and its Mini-survey, collected between 2014/01 and 2016/06.1 In this time frame, WageIndicator did not had a Salary Survey and a Minisurvey in two countries, notably Croatia and Cyprus. Hence, this report presents graphs about the monetary and non-monetary allowances and bonuses for 27 European countries. 
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Manual for the Cost of Living Application in French. The Cost of Living Application is an offline application of the online web-survey. You can download it and put it on the desktop of your laptop, or you home-page of your smartphone. You can then use the app on your phone or laptop without needing credit, WiFi or another form of internet connection. You can use the app everywhere you go: the market, supermarket, in people’s homes, while visiting friends, while hanging out with your family – Ask away! 
Download the Handout in English or visit: costofliving.wageindicator.org
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Background: This study used the global WageIndicator web survey to answer the following research questions: (RQ1) What are the migration patterns of health workers? (RQ2) What are the personal and occupational drivers of migration? (RQ3) Are foreign-born migrant health workers discriminated against in their destination countries? 
Conclusions: Migration generally seems to ‘pay off’ in terms of work and labour conditions, although accrued benefits are not equal for all cadres, regions and routes. Because the WageIndicator survey is a voluntary survey, these findings are exploratory rather than representative.
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Leefbaar loon in Azie - June 2016

De Nederlandstalige publicatie van het Living Wages in the Garment Industry in Asia rapport van de WageIndicator Foundation en AIAS Amsterdam in Zeggenschap. 
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Codebook WageIndicator Salary Survey - June 2016

This document contains the variable and value information of the dataset of the WageIndicator Salary Survey, a web survey on work and wages, annual release 2015, for the version delivered to the IZA data archive. The IZA dataset comprises of a reduced list of all variables in the web survey, and it contains for the continuous survey questions only. This document does not contain the variable and value labels of the project survey questions. More information about the web survey can be found in the 2010 codebook.
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Handout Cost of Living Application - user guide - June 2016

The Cost of Living Application is an offline application of the online web-survey. You can download it and put it on the desktop of your laptop, or you home-page of your smartphone. You can then use the app on your phone or laptop without needing credit, WiFi or another form of internet connection. You can use the app everywhere you go: the market, supermarket, in people’s homes, while visiting friends, while hanging out with your family – Ask away! 
Download the Handout or visit: costofliving.wageindicator.org
Download - Coût de la Vie App – Guide de l’utilisateur 

The Living Wage Eastern Africa project 2013-2016. Mid-Term Evaluation Final Report - June 2016

The starting point of the Living Wage1 Eastern Africa project (LWEA) was the preceding project ‘Decent Work Checks Southern Africa’, implemented in South-Africa, Zambia and Mozambique in the period 2009-2011. The LWEA is a follow-up project financed by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and runs from 2013-2016. Enhancing food security in developing countries was one of the overarching policy aims of Dutch development cooperation in 2013. This position links up with United Nations policies. Their joint concern is prompted by the fear that the food crisis will be worsening over the coming decades. This combination of national and international priorities led the WageIndicator Foundation to design the LWEA project.
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Manual and codebook of the WageIndicator Collective Agreements Database - Version 2 - May 2016

In a globalised world comparative and up-to-date data on wages and wage setting institutions is needed to understand the global economy in relation to national labour markets and industrial relations systems. Collective bargaining is considered an important instrument in wage-setting processes. However, this assumption is not underpinned with rich empirical data, because very little is known about what exactly is agreed in these collective bargaining agreements. Social partners or governmental institutions in some countries maintain databases with collective agreement texts, but few of them code the text according to a predefined set of characteristics. One reason may be that such databases require prolonged efforts to collect, read and code collective agreements. Even if databases are maintained on a country basis, across countries these agreements will be coded differently and on different levels of detail; thus, cross-country comparisons are not possible. This lack of data is an obstacle to the exploration of the range of issues negotiated in collective agreements, as well as their impact on individual labour market outcomes. It challenges the need for a global collective agreement database. This version is based on Version 1 from February 2016. 
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WageIndex report India: WageIndicator Foundation and Monster India - May 2016

The analysis presented in this report is based on the WageIndicator dataset covering the period of 2 years and 9 months, from January 2013 to September 2015. This report provides a comparison of wage and working conditions figures for three periods: calendar year 2013, calendar year 2014 and the first three quarters of 2015 (January – September 2015). The wage analysis is based on data collected from the Paycheck.in, Salary Calculator and Monster Salary Index from the aforementioned periods. The sample used for the analysis consists of 31,193 respondents, approximately 86.50% of which are men and the remaining 13.50% are women. The sample contains only employees; wages of self-employed people are excluded. Employees from different age groups, varied industries, and various hierarchical positions in their respective occupations are included in the sample.The data from the Indian labour market analyzed in this report is classified into eight different sectors: Legal and market consultancy, business activities; Information and communication technology (ICT); Health care, caring services, social work; Education, research; Financial services, banking, insurance; Transport, logistics, communication; Construction and technical consultancy; Manufacturing. As the analyzed data comes from online surveys, it has some specific characteristics, such as the sectoral structure of collected observations: the majority of observations come from these three sectors: Financial services, banking, insurance (23%), Manufacturing (21%), and ICT (19%). 
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Wages in Context in the Garment Industry in Asia - April 2016 

This report is the result of a study undertaken for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Netherlands, on behalf of the Asian Living Wage Conference (ALWC) in Pakistan in 2016. The Asian Living Wage Conference (ALWC) aims to engage Asian textile-producing countries in the initiatives of EU and US brands and multi-stakeholder initiatives to implement living wages. The ALWC will highlight the need to link the supply chain initiatives of brands to the collective bargaining processes between local unions and employers (ACT/IndustriALL MoU is best practice). A good understanding of the country specific wage context is thereby of utmost importance. The Ministry has asked WageIndicator Foundation to prepare input for the conference, among others by specifying the cost of living in the garment industries in all countries concerned. The Ministry has asked the Foundation specifically: 
• to provide information about labour law, minimum wage setting and minimum wage levels pertaining to the garment industry in nine Asian countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam); 
• to include an overview of sources providing information about wages of garment workers in these countries, and provide information about these wage levels; 
• to give insight in the cost of living levels and related living wage levels in the garment industries; 
• to prepare an overview of the country-specific hurdles for realising living wages, such as prices/cost of living, purchasing policies of brands, employment contracts, based on interviews with experts.

Download the full report in English - or download a handout per country: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam

Wages in Context in the Garment Industry - the case of Bangladesh

This Handout highlight the wages in context in the garment industry in Bangladesh. 
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Wages in Context in the Garment Industry - the case of Cambodia

This Handout highlight the wages in context in the garment industry in Cambodia. 
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Wages in Context in the Garment Industry - the case of China

This Handout highlight the wages in context in the garment industry in China. 
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Wages in Context in the Garment Industry - the case of India

This Handout highlight the wages in context in the garment industry in India. 
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Wages in Context in the Garment Industry - the case of Indonesia

This Handout highlight the wages in context in the garment industry in Indonesia. 
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Wages in Context in the Garment Industry - the case of Myanmar

This Handout highlight the wages in context in the garment industry in Myanmar. 
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Wages in Context in the Garment Industry - the case of Pakistan

This Handout highlight the wages in context in the garment industry in Pakistan. 
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Wages in Context in the Garment Industry - the case of Sri Lanka

This Handout highlight the wages in context in the garment industry in Sri Lanka.  
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Wages in Context in the Garment Industry - the case of Vietnam

This Handout highlight the wages in context in the garment industry in Vietnam 
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What do workers do? Measuring the intensity and market value of tasks in jobs - April 2016

Do occupations refer to the same work activities, as assumed in occupational classifications such as the International Standard Classification of Occupations from the International Labor Organisation (ILO)? Up to now, no large-scale empirical testing of this assumption has been conducted, whereas occupations are a core variable in socio-economic research. Using the task descriptions provided for all ISCO 4 digit occupations, the frequency of task implementation was tested using respondents in the multi-country, multilingual WageIndicator web survey on work and wages in 13 countries. The web survey targets individuals in the labour force. Depending on their self-selected occupation, the relevant task list was shown and respondents were asked to tick on a 5-point scale how often they performed each task. For 427 occupations (ISCO08 4 digits) in total 3,237 occupation- specific tasks were available. Between November 2013 and August 2015 33,678 respondents had completed the tasks questions for their respective occupations. The results show that task measurement is feasible because it can generate sufficient observations to allow for analysis for a range of detailed, 4-digit occupations. Moreover, given that the WageIndicator web survey also holds data on wages, the median and average hourly wages (in Euro) could be computed for each task separately, showing that the average wages of tasks performed on a daily or weekly basis ranged between 5 and 34 Euro. The data collection challenges future empirical testing of hypotheses concerning the variation in task frequencies and their related wage premiums within and across countries, across occupations’ skill levels, across firm sizes, across regions and alike.
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Codebook of the WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey - April 2016

WageIndicator operates a Cost of Living Survey asking the prices of in total 380 items (see Section 2), relevant to identify a living wage. This survey is posted on all national WageIndicator websites and is in the national languages. In 2015, the Cost of Living Survey was offered in 46 languages and in 84 countries, with more countries and languages expected in 2016. The websites attract millions of visitors, because they publish urgently needed but usually not easy accessible information for the public at large. Through Search Engine Optimisation the WageIndicator Foundation undertakes large efforts to attract visitors, in 2015 resulting in more than 30 million unique visitors. The web visitors are invited to complete the survey, either for one item or for all. Apart from the survey questions about prices, the survey includes a question about the respondent’s province and city in order to specify for geographical variation in cost of living levels. Hence, the web survey is a multi-country, multilingual, continuous, volunteer web survey. The list of items is mostly similar across countries, but the food items include country-specific items, thereby reflecting national food preferences. See for an explanation of the data collection and the list of items, Guzi and Kahance (2014), Guzi (2015) and Guzi et al. (2015). See for the list of countries with a Cost of Living survey: http://www.wageindicator.org/main/salary/living-wage/wageindicator-cost-ofliving-survey).
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Manual and Codebook for WageIndicator's CBA Database - Version 1 - February 2016

In a globalised world comparative and up-to-date data on wages and wage setting institutions is needed to understand the global economy in relation to national labour markets and industrial relations systems. Collective bargaining is considered an important instrument in wage-setting processes. However, this assumption is not underpinned with rich empirical data, because very little is known about what exactly is agreed in these collective bargaining agreements. Social partners or governmental institutions in some countries maintain databases with collective agreement texts, but few of them code the text according to a predefined set of characteristics. One reason may be that such databases require prolonged efforts to collect, read and code collective agreements. Even if databases are maintained on a country basis, across countries these agreements will be coded differently and on different levels of detail; thus, cross-country comparisons are not possible. This lack of data is an obstacle to the exploration of the range of issues negotiated in collective agreements, as well as their impact on individual labour market outcomes. It challenges the need for a global collective agreement database. 
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WageIndicator Labour Law Database: A Comparative Tool for Understanding Labour Laws in 80 Countries - March 2016

An introduction to the ever growing worldwide database of Labour Law of the WageIndicator Foundation which functions as a comparative tool for understanding Labour Laws in 80 countries. The powerpoint presentation is freely available, and includes text spoken by Iftikhar Ahmad himself, the creator and manager of the worldwide database.
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Netherlands: Gender Pay Gap country report (WITA GPG) - March 2016

This report belongs to the WITA GPG project (With innovative tools against gender pay gap). Tendencies in the Netherlands are: decreasing average Dutch GPG around EU average The GPG in the Netherlands was particularly high and higher than the EU average in the years of the economic crisis; in 2008-2011 it was higher or near to 18%. Since 2012 the Dutch GPG started to decrease slowly, although in 2012 the Dutch GPG was higher than the EU average. In 2013-2014 the Dutch GPG was already around the EU average (around 16%). 
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Explanatory manual about the global Minimum Wage Database of WageIndicator - March 2016

In a globalized world, comparative and up-to-date data on wages and wage setting institutions is needed to understand the worldwide economy in relation to national labour markets, wage setting processes and industrial relations systems. Minimum wage setting is considered an important feature of a country’s wage-setting. Decision making bodies such as wage boards are designed for decision making, but their dissemination capacities are mostly not well developed. When information is lacking, it is hard for employers to comply with the minimum wage rates and for employees to check if they are paid accordingly. In the 2000s the Internet offered unmet possibilities for dissemination. WageIndicator stepped into this area, see http://www.wageindicator.org/main/salary/minimum-wage.
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Minimum Wage Comparison Asian countries - Minimum Wage Fixing - February 2016

For countries which have a minimum wage, the minimum wage fixing system differs according to objectives and criteria, machinery and procedures, coverage, and subsequent adjustment as well as the operation and enforcement of rules established. In many countries, a tripartite committee sets minimum wages or commission comprised of representatives from workers, employers, and the government, while in others they are set by executive decree or legislative actions. 
This report is a part of a series of reports, which will cover various aspects of minimum wage in Asian countries like, Official Representation of Minimum Wages, Minimum Wage Fixation, Legal Compliance and Minimum Wage Rate Comparison. For the comparative analysis of minimum wage representation in Asian countries, we have considered only those, which are under the Wage Indicator project1. These countries are: Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. 
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Spain: Gender Pay Gap (GPG) country report - February 2016

In the last years – starting from 2011 - the unadjusted gender pay gap in Spain used to be above the EU average. In 2013 it was already among the highest values with its 19,3%. The GPG in Spain deteriorated particularly strongly in the years of the economic crisis; from 2008 to 2012 the Spanish GPG increased by 3,2 percentage points. In the EU there were only two countries (Portugal and Italy) preceding Spain in this. (But we have to note that their GPG used to be originally much lower than the Spanish.) Following 2012 we see a minor improvement in 2013 and stagnation in 2014. According to the latest available figure (Eurostat) the Spanish unadjusted GPG in 2014 was 18,8%.
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WageIndex Report India: Wages and working conditions in the financial sector. WageIndicator Foundation - February 2016

Some of the key findings are: India’s banking industry alone is expected to create approximately two million jobs throughout the next five to ten years; The median gross hourly wage in the financial sector is INR 300.23; Overall, 96% of respondents in this sector hold at least a Bachelor’s degree; Workers below 30 years of age earn on average INR 194 per hour; workers between the ages of 30-40 earn INR 335 per hour, and workers over 40 earn INR 507 per hour; Approximately 86% of survey respondents working in the financial sector were men; Men earn a gross hourly wage of INR 311.78, while a female receives only INR 256.61 per hour; The gender pay gap in the financial sector is about 18%. 
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WageIndex Report India: Wages and working conditions in the ICT sector. WageIndicator Foundation - February 2016

Some of the key findings are: The median gross hourly wage in the ICT sector is INR 346.42; Overall, 95% of respondents in this sector hold at least a 3-year Bachelor’s degree; Workers below 30 years of age earn on average INR 236 per hour; workers between the ages of 30-40 earn INR 450 per hour, and workers over 40 earn INR 695 per hour; Approximately 88% of survey respondents working in the ICT sector were men; Men earn a gross hourly wage of INR 365, while a female receives only INR 231 per hour; The gender pay gap in the ICT sector is about 37%. 
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WageIndex Report India: Wages and working conditions in the manufacturing sector. WageIndicator Foundation - February 2016

Some of the key findings are: The median gross hourly wage in the manufacturing sector is INR 254.04; Overall, 93% of respondents in this sector hold at least a 3-year Bachelor’s degree; Workers below 30 years of age earn on average INR 131 per hour; workers between the ages of 30-40 earn INR 260 per hour, and workers over 40 earn INR 346 per hour; Approximately 90% of survey respondents working in the manufacturing sector were men; Men earn a gross hourly wage of INR 260, while a female receives only INR 195 per hour;The gender pay gap in the manufacturing sector is about 25%.
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Was verdienen Diplom-Kaufleute? Eine Analyse von Einkommensdaten auf Basis der WSI-Lohnspiegel-Datenbank - February 2016

The project "Lohnspiegel" did the data collection and analysis of income and working conditions of employees in Germany in the sector of "Diplom Kaufmann / women". The data is based on surveys from the beginning of 2011 to mid 2015. They found that the average gross monthly income of graduate merchants, excluding bonuses based on a 40 hour work-week is around € 4.851. Half of the graduated merchants earned less than € 4.705. 
Download the full Paper in German

Estimating the Likelihood of Women Working in the Service Sector in Formal Enterprises: Evidence from Sub Saharan African Countries - February 2016

The paper uses individual data for 9,957 female employees (drawn from a total sample of 29,332 individuals) in formal enterprises from 16 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries to analyse the likelihood of women in the service sector. A well-structured questionnaire was used in all the countries to collect the data required for the analysis. The data reveal that there is a significant higher presence of women (81.56 percent) working in services as compared to the manufacturing and agricultural sectors; indicating that the service sector is more favourable for women employment compared with men. This indicates that female employment not only in the service sector is a driver of growth, and thus high female employment rates indicate a country’s potential to grow more rapidly. More so, in many developing countries women’s employment is sometimes considered as a coping mechanism in response to economic shocks that hit the household.
The Full Paper in English

The Importance of Foreign Language Skills in the Labour Markets of Central and Eastern Europe: An assessment based on data from online job portals - January 2016

In a globalised world, knowledge of foreign languages is an important skill. Especially in Europe, with its 24 official languages and its countless regional and minority languages, foreign language skills are a key asset in the labour market. Earlier research shows that over half of the EU27 population is able to speak at least one foreign language, but there is substantial national variation. This study is devoted to a group of countries known as the Visegrad Four, which comprises the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Although the supply of foreign language skills in these countries appears to be welldocumented, less is known about the demand side. In this study, we therefore examine the demand for foreign language skills on the Visegrad labour markets, using information extracted from online job portals.
The Full Paper in English

Using online vacancies and web surveys to analyse the labour market: a methodological approach - January 2016

This paper discusses methodological issues arising from the use of online job vacancy data and voluntary web-based surveys to analyse the labour market. We highlight the advantages and possible disadvantages of using online data and suggest strategies for overcoming selected methodological issues. We underline the difficulties in adjusting for representativeness of online job vacancies, but nevertheless argue that this rich source of data should be exploited.
The Full Paper in English 

Hungary: The gap between the wages of men and women - January 2016

The phenomenon of the gap between men and women's earnings is one of the current management topics of today, and it is an issue that should be put on the agenda of many social partners for a variety of reasons. One reason is that the difference in pay between men and women (gender pay gap) in Hungary does not get better, but worse, according to the latest available data. 
Amazingly so, in EU comparison, in some aspects - like gender pay gap in public sector, in education, graduated employees - Hungarian women have the highest gender pay gap (at the expense of women). 
Full Report in Hungarian - Summary in English

Task implementation heterogeneity and wage dispersion - November 2015

Wage dispersion among observationally similar workers is still only partially unexplained by economists from both a theoretical and an empirical point of view. We found that the variation in task implementation in different occupations is related both to within-occupation wage dispersion and to cross-occupation wage levels: workers in high-wage occupations are less defined around a typical worker than those in other occupations.
The Full Report in English

Mobile Research Methods - October 2015

Among all the tools currently used, mobile devices, especially mobile phones, smartphones and tablets, are the most widespread, with their use becoming prevalent in everyday life within both developed and developing countries. This book focuses on the use of mobile devices in various research contexts, aiming to provide a detailed and updated knowledge on what is a comparatively new field of study.
The Full Report in English 

Violence against women at the workplace is a major problem, though the statistical evidence is not well developed for many countries. This report aims at gaining a better insight into the extent to which working women are facing violence at work. It focusses on women on sexual harassment and bullying at the workplace in the working age population (15-65 years of age).
The Full Report in English, French, Spanish 

Manual and Codebook of the WageIndicator Collective Agreements Database - September 2015

Download the Manual and Codebook

Inventory of Trade Union - Gender Pay Gap Policies and Activities in EU 29 countries - WITA GPG - September 2015

The equal rights and opportunities including the struggle for “equal pay for equal work” have been long time on the agenda of trade unions.
“Women have historically been paid less than men  for  doing  the  same  job.  Contrary  to  widespread  belief,  this  struggle  for  equal  pay  did not  start  in  the  1960s,  but  has  been  taken  up  by  women  workers  since  the  late  19th century....
The Full Report in English 

Women’s Frequently Asked Labour Rights Questions - September 2015

From 2012 to 2016, the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), the WageIndicator Foundation and the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies (AIAS) are running the Labour Rights for Women project with national trade union confederations and WageIndicator teams in twelve developing countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia. In this report, we present an overview of the information provided to workers in the project countries and the extent to which they make use of it.
The Full Report in English

10 Gender Pay Gap Clauses in Collective Agreements - WITA GPG - August 2015

Collective bargaining is one of the most important trade union tools to reach fair pay. Paradoxically the economic crisis of 2008 enforced trade unions to bargain for equality and collective agreements served to  reduce  pay inequalities.
Despite  of  the  importance  of  collective  bargaining  to  deal  with inequalities, there are difficulties like “women  tend  to  be  less  involved  and  represented,  therefore their needs and specific pay issues are “routinely ignored”.
The Full Report in English

15 Years of WageIndicator - August 2015

R e s u l t s . That is what we can proudly present after 15 years of hard work. Some of the contributors to this WageIndicator Conference Reader have been part of our rollercoaster ride right from the beginning. As you will leaf through this WageIndicator Conference Reader, you will find that each and every contribution speaks of commitment. All pieced together convey a broad picture of maturity and freshness. The old stem still produces new offshoots. The core is alive! What is this core?
The Full Conference Reader in English

Skill mismatch among migrant workers: evidence from a large multi-country dataset - July 2015

This article unravels the migrants’ incidence of skill mismatch taking into consideration different migration flows. Mismatch is the situation in which workers have jobs for which lower skill levels are required compared to their education.  Dataset (from a large multi-country web survey) particularly suited to investigate differences in skill mismatch between native and migrant workers is used.
The Full Report in English

Self-identification of occupation in web surveys - requirements for search trees and look-up tables - June 2015

Survey Insights: Methods from the Field. Can self-identification of occupation be applied in web surveys by using a look-up table with coded occupational titles, in contrast to other survey modes where an open format question with office-coding has to be applied? This article is among the first to explore this approach, using a random sampled web survey (N=3,224) with a three-level search tree with 1,603 occupations and offering a text box at the bottom of each 3rd level list.
The Full Report in English 

Is the web a promising tool for data collection in developing countries? - May 2015

This article helps to fill that gap by comparing similar non-probability-based web surveys (WEB) and probability-based face-to-face (F2F) surveys both to each other and to the labor force. An analysis of WageIndicator data on work and wages derived from surveys held in 2009–2013 in 10 developing countries.
The Full Report and Summary in English

Wage Index, Sector Analysis of the Netherlands; Loonwijzer – Monsterboard Wage Index - March 2015

The Loonwijzer – Monsterboard Wage Index is to describe some of the key characteristics of the workforce in ten selected sectors of the Dutch labor market. Levels as well as annual changes in key characteristics are studied in six focus areas. Lastly, worldwide wages are compared on 4 occupational groups.
The Full Report in English

WICARE Project Reports - March 2015

A project to improve expertise concerning wages and working conditions in the social services sector in the European Union. For this purpose, it collected survey data in 24 EU member states by means of a mixed mode approach of web-surveys and printed questionnaires adapted for the purpose of this specific project.
The Full Reports and Summaries in English and National Languages.

Workers and labour market outcomes of informal jobs in formal enterprises in 9 sub-Saharan African countries - February 2015

How can an informal job in formal establishments be defined? Who has an informal job? What are the labour market outcomes? This article uses data of comparable face-to-face surveys in nine countries: Benin, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal and Togo. An index for job-based informality is developed, based on employment status and contribution and entitlement to social security.
The Abstract and Purchase link to the full report in English and French

WageIndex Analytical Report -India - February 2015

With substantial growth in some sectors like IT and ITES, automobiles, and pharmaceuticals; the effect is increasing productivity in several industries. Labour market segmentation is visible across sector, region, gender, caste, etc.

Comparing collective bargaining agreements for developing countries - January 2015

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to fill several knowledge gaps regarding the contents of collective agreements, using a new online database. The authors analyse 249 collective agreements from 11 countries.
Findings – The authors find that 98 per cent of the collective agreements include clauses on wages, but that only few agreements specify wage levels. 
The Full Report and Summary in English

A web survey analysis of subjective well-being - January 2015

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of work conditions and job characteristics with respect to three subjective well-being (SWB) indicators: life satisfaction, job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance.
Findings – The results shed light on the importance of certain job characteristics not only in determining job satisfaction, but also in other SWB domains.
The Full Report and Summary in English


The full report in English

Wages, Collective Bargaining and Recovery from the Crisis in the Netherlands - January 2015

Social partners accepted the re-placement of a voluntary ‘social minimum wage’ by a statutory minimum wage, introduced in 1969. There are good reasons to defend a wage-led strategy as a recovery option in the case of the Netherlands.
The Full Report and Summary in English

Bonus Payments in the Indian Formal Sector, 2008-2014 -January 2015

“Bonus Payments in the Indian Formal Sector” study attempts to identify the trends and pattern related to Executive Bonus Payment in Indian firms. The segment of executives covered in the study includes Managers, Supervisors, Senior Management, and Entry-level professionals.
The full report in English

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