EU Sources - Job segregation and working time as driving factors of the gender gap - October 31, 2016

Four different reports pay attention to the size and impact of the gender pay gap. An IAB-paper estimates size and impact factors of the gender pay gap in Europe. The authors analyse 21 EU countries plus Norway, which clearly exceeds the scope of existing microdata studies. They also examine the sources of the unexplained gap. The sectoral segregation of genders is identified as the most important barrier to gender pay equality. In addition, the fact that part-time positions are more frequent among women notably contributes to the gap. The authors conclude that policies aiming at closing the gender pay gap should focus more on the sector level than on the aggregate economy. In its Global Gender Gap Report, the World Economic Forum quantifies the magnitude of gender disparities and tracks their progress over time, with a specific focus on the relative gaps between women and men across four key areas: health, education, economy and politics. It reveals that, despite a high regional average compared to the rest of the world, there is wide spread of outcomes among the European countries, with the Western region performing better than Eastern Europe. In a detailed Eurofound report on women’s labour participation and the consequences of the gender gap, it is revealed that, on average, women in the EU earned around 16.1% less per hour than men in 2014. In spite of more than 30 years of equal pay legislation, the gender pay gap remained persistent across all Member States, regardless of the overall level of female employment, national welfare models or equality legislation. The London-based business comparison site Expert Market has mapped gender pay gap data from 40 European nations to show exactly when in the year women effectively start working for free.

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For more information, please contact the editor Jan Cremers, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies (AIAS) or the communications officer at the ETUI, Willy De Backer For previous issues of the Collective bargaining newsletter please visit Since June 2013 readers can consult our archive and search through all articles in our database at www.cbnarchive.euYou may find further information on the ETUI at, and on the AIAS at

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