Collective Bargaining Newsletter - Year 2, No.4 - April 2009

(Also in PDF: Collective Bargaining Newsletter - April 2009, 176 kB)

Austria

Unions organise week of action on health and social care

Belgium

Federation attacks increase in precarious employment

Confederation president accuses employers of wrecking agreement

Bulgaria

Kremikovtzi steel workers continue protest

Croatia

Public sector workers face pay cuts

Czech Republic

Union confederation rejects plans for Labour Code reform

Finland

Postal action moderated after conditional agreement

France

Eight confederations unite in further action

Carmakers sign agreements to avoid layoffs

Germany

Union rejects employers’ offer on re-grading

Difficult negotiations in energy sector

Discounter Kik’s methods under scrutiny

Greece

Union confederations demonstrate against pay freeze

Hungary

Unions demonstrate against austerity measures

Ireland

Unions say budget fails to tackle crisis

Italy

Mass union protest in Rome

Latvia

Protests over public sector pay cuts continue

Lithuania

Further demonstrations on public sector pay

Luxembourg

Union confederation asks for government action

Netherlands

Victory for Schiphol Airport cleaners

Union negotiates crisis package with car dealers

Debates on terms of part-time unemployment payments

Norway

Agreement in national wage negotiations

Poland

Miners agree to wage terms

Portugal

Union signs local agreements for firefighters

Romania

IMF loan will lead to public sector pay cuts

Spain

Union federations call for government action on basic law

Sweden

Number of company-level crisis packages grows rapidly

United Kingdom

Local government employers offer 0.5%

Union pleas for manufacturing at the heart of the budget

More about this newsletter

FOR MORE INFORMATION

 

Austria

 

Unions organise week of action on health and social care

April 15, 2009

The GPA-DJP and VIDA trade unions have organised a week of action (14-17 April) calling for increased funding of health and social care, including better pay and conditions for workers in the sector, along with the creation of more jobs. The unions argue that the 200,000 workers in the sector, mainly women, do not get enough recognition for the work they do and the stress and strains of their jobs.

English: http://www.epsu.org/cob/303 ;

German: http://www.vida.at/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=S03/Page/Index&n=S03_
0.a&cid=1238488042255 ; http://www.gpa-djp.at/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=GPA/Page/Index&n=G
PA_0.a&cid=1237936214886

 

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Belgium

 

Federation attacks increase in precarious employment

April 15, 2009

The CSC public service federation has criticized a decision by the Council of Ministers to allow for the recruitment of contractual and agency workers to parts of the federal civil service. The union argues that there should have been a proper process of negotiation over the proposal to appoint contractual workers. The union thinks the government is using the pretence of categorizing certain issues, such as migration, as “auxiliary” matters allowing to appoint contractual staff rather than statutory civil servants. The CSC also argues that the Ministry of Justice’s plan to take on agency staff to work in medical services in prisons is in conflict with regulations that state that agency workers should not be used in the federal services.

English: http://www.epsu.org/cob/303 ;

French: http://csc-services-publics.csc-en-ligne.be/Nouvelles/Sectorielles/autorite
_federal/actualites_federal/comm_presse_fed_31_mars_2009.asp

Confederation president accuses employers of wrecking agreement

April 20, 2009

The president of the ABVV/FGTB trade union confederation, Rudy de Leeuw, has accused the leaders of the two main employers’ associations of consciously wrecking the national agreement (interprofessional accord, IPA) for 2009-2010, and thus frustrating the basis of the Belgian social model. He gave as an example that the employers tend to pay the Euro 250 premium only to full-time employees, and not –as agreed—also to part-timers. The ABVV/FGTB president also condemned employers’ pleas for a new generational pact.

Dutch: http://www.metrotime.be/nlnewsbelga.html?telexid=41524281

 

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Bulgaria

 

Kremikovtzi steel workers continue protest

April 21, 2009

The day after the Easter holidays workers from the Kremikovtzi steel mill have continued their protests, rallying over unpaid salaries and the imminent closure of the plant. The Federation of Metallurgy - CL Podkrepa and Metalicy, representing workers of the plant, accused the Bulgarian authorities of failing to act, and demanded the government to pay out arrears in wages (since November 2008) to the 5,000 Kremikovtzi workers as well as to provide compensations to 2,000 workers who will lose their jobs by the end of June. The executive director of the plant denied earlier rumours about the Brazilian company CSN, the only bidder, was not interested any more in the acquisition of the insolvent plant. However, unions are demanding from the government to render more active support and commitment in the search for a new buyer of the plant.

English: http://www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=102938 via http://www.labourstart.org/cgi-bin/show_news.pl?country=Bulgaria ;

http://www.imfmetal.org/main/index.cfm?n=47&l=2&c=19237&nb=2

 

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Croatia

 

Public sector workers face pay cuts

April 15, 2009

The SSSH trade union confederation reports that the government has decided on pay cuts for public sector workers of at least 6% as from 1 April 2009. According to the confederation, civil service unions had conceded to the pay cuts but other public sector unions had rejected the government proposals, arguing that the wages of the employed in public services had already been lagging behind for years.

English: http://www.epsu.org/cob/303 ; http://www.sssh.hr/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=201
;

http://www.sssh.hr/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=203

 

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Czech Republic

 

Union confederation rejects plans for Labour Code reform

April 15, 2009

The CMKOS trade union confederation has attacked proposals for major changes to the Czech labour code. The plans were announced in March before the collapse of the government and the confederation argues that this means that there is now no mandate for such fundamental changes. The reforms focus on creating a more flexible labour market that would make it easier for employers to dismiss employees and to make greater use of fixed-term workers. If implemented, the changes would also undermine collective bargaining and the rights of trade unions at the workplace.

English: http://www.epsu.org/cob/303 ; http://www.cmkos.cz/homepage/1438-3

 

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Finland

 

Postal action moderated after conditional agreement

April 22, 2009

The Finnish Post and Logistics Union (PAU) announced plans for a six-hour work stoppage on Wednesday 22 April. Earlier, the postal union had threatened more severe industrial action, which might have led to a complete shutdown of postal deliveries. However, in negotiations during the weekend of 18-19 April the union reached agreement with the management side, Itella, on terms for necessary cutbacks of personnel. Union president Esa Vinkula emphasised that the action target was not Itella, which operates the Finnish postal service, but the company’s owner - the Finnish state. Vinkula said that the agreed package makes it significantly more difficult to take early retirement, adding, “The government or some other parties have clearly decided that the “retirement pipeline” should not be used any more.” Moreover, the agreement requires money to be provided by the state.

English: http://www.hs.fi/english/article/Industrial+action+by+postal+workers+expect
ed+to+slow+but+not+stop+mail+delivery/1135245339233 via http://www.labourstart.org/cgi-bin/show_news.pl?country=Finland

 

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France

 

Eight confederations unite in further action

April 15, 2009

Following the successful national mobilisation on 29 January and the even larger turnout in protests and strikes on 19 March, the eight main national trade union confederations have issued another joint call for nationwide demonstrations on 1 May. They are also calling on their member organisations to mobilise throughout April in preparation for the 1 May events. The unions continue to call for increases to public sector pay and an end to government policies that are increasing precarious employment in the public sector and cutting funding that is undermining service quality.

English: http://www.epsu.org/r/174 ;

French: http://www.cgt.fr/spip.php?article35908 ; http://www.force-ouvriere.fr/page_principal/fede/index.asp?lk=fd&id=431
1&fed=Fédération%20Générale%20des%20Fonctionnaires%20FO ; https://www.cfdt.fr/rewrite/article/18834/actualites/un-1er-mai-inter
syndical-exceptionnel.htm?idRubrique=6864

Carmakers sign agreements to avoid layoffs

April 14, 2009

The management of French carmaker Renault and four union organizations (CFDT, CFTC, CFE-CGC and FO) have signed a “social crisis agreement” aimed at saving 8,000-10,000 jobs in France in 2009. The agreement establishes a system to maintain employees’ net pay during partial unemployment, mobilizing days granted for working time reduction and calling some categories of employees, notably executives, for solidarity. A few days earlier, the PSA Peugeot Citroën group had signed an agreement with five unions (CFDT, CFTC, CFE-CGC, FO and GSEA) on training and compensation during partial unemployment, with the objective to compensate employees sent to partial unemployment up to 100% while attending training. With this agreement, the social partners think that they will save 2,800 jobs.

English: message to EUCOBAN network of European Metalworkers’ Federation (EMF);

French: www.planetlabor.com

 

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Germany

 

Union rejects employers’ offer on re-grading

April 15, 2009

The ver.di public services union is campaigning for a major re-grading of the mainly women workers employed in various social, welfare and educational occupations. The union argues that these workers’ occupations have not only been undervalued but that their responsibilities and the pressure of work have increased considerably in recent years. In the second round of negotiations on 30 March, employer proposals for re-grading were rejected as an outrageous provocation by ver.di which has launched a special website to argue the case for the re-gradings.

English: http://www.epsu.org/cob/303 ;

German: http://presse.verdi.de/pressemitteilungen/showNews?id=d2527ae2-1cf9-11de-60
6a-0019b9e321cd ; http://www.chancen-foerdern.de/

Cleaning employers refuse to negotiate

April 17, 2009

Cleaners’ union IG Bau has been negotiating with the industry’s employers in order to set national wages and conditions for some months. Legally established time limits require union and employers to come to an agreement by 31 May. In the last negotiation round held, employers refused to continue discussion on a wage increase, arguing that the economic crisis prevents them to pay any increase for cleaners, some of whom earning only 35% of the average hourly wage in Germany. The union asked for a 8.7% hike. Under these conditions IG Bau has intensified its campaign “Cleanliness has its price”.

English: http://www.uniglobalunion.org/Apps/iportal.nsf/pages/sec_20081016_gbg7En ;

German: http://sauberkeithatihrenpreis.de

Discounter Kik’s methods under scrutiny

April 11, 2009

The commercial success of textile discounter Kik, majority-owned by the Tengelmann concern, has kicked up a storm. Recently, a court in the city of Hamm ruled as “indecent” the salaries paid to saleswomen Martina K., 47, and Ursula G., 62, who received hourly wages of Euro 5.20. As a consequence, Kik will have to pay them between Euro 8,900-10,500 in arrear and to raise their wages to Euro 8.21. In all, 3,500 Kik workers in Germany, of a total 15,000 worldwide, are paid Euro 5 per hour and receive the strict minimum in state health and pension benefits, according to the services trade union Verdi. A Kik spokeswoman confirmed that in Germany the firm has no Works Councils.

English: http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jAirfrkeRHEZEu393rxBr_US
spTQ

via: http://www.labourstart.org/cgi-bin/show_news.pl?country=Germany

 

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Greece

 

Union confederations demonstrate against pay freeze

April 15, 2009

A wide range of workers in the private and public sectors joined strikes and demonstrations across Greece on 2 April in protest at government plans to freeze public sector pay. The government said it would freeze all salaries for workers earning Euro 1,700 or more a month and those on less than Euro 1,700 would get lump sum payments only. Earlier, wages of public servants were already subject to a one years’ freeze. The 24-hour strike was called by the two largest union organizations, the General Confederation of Workers and the Civil Servants' Council.

English: http://www.epsu.org/cob/303#a4880 ; http://www.upi.com/Top_News/2009/04/02/Protesters-bring-Greece-to-standstil
l/UPI-54881238687091/

 

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Hungary

 

Unions demonstrate against austerity measures

April 20, 2009

The major trade union confederations demanded a “more humane world, in which not only money, capital, profit are important,” in their demonstration on 18 April against the government's austerity measures. Some 3,000 people gathered in front of Parliament, where union leaders called for protecting jobs, and even and fair burdening of employers and employees in the economic crisis. At the end of the demonstration they handed over a petition to the government's representatives in Parliament. The day before the demonstration new prime minister Gordon Bajnai announced “strong austerity measures" of Euro 1.4 billion in expenditure cuts of in 2009, and Euro 3.7 billion next year. The measures would affect public services as well as the pension and social benefit systems. For 30 April, the Free Union of Railway Workers (VDSZSZ) has announced an 18 hours’ strike in order to protest against these austerity measures.

English: http://www.budapesttimes.hu/content/view/11709/159/; http://www.budapesttimes.hu/content/view/11738/219

 

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Ireland

 

Unions say budget fails to tackle crisis

April 20, 2009

National negotiations between trade unions, employers and the government are set to continue despite bitter union disappointment over the government’s budget and national recovery plan presented on 7 April. Unions argue that the government has failed to take any measures to protect jobs or boost provision of training while implementing social welfare cuts and imposing levies that will affect even those paid the minimum wage. The unions will try to get some movement from the government on jobs following a decision by the finance ministry to freeze public sector recruitment. “This budget is not a basis for financial solidarity”, said Jack O’Connor, president of SIPTU, the country’s largest union, “Workers who are now losing their jobs see no tangible measures in this budget for job maintenance” (See also this Collective Bargaining Newsletter Year 2 February 2009 and Year 2 March 2009).

English: http://www.epsu.org/cob/303 ;

http://www.impact.ie/iopen24/newsdesk_info.php?newsdesk_id=214 ; http://www.siptu.ie/PressRoom/NewsReleases/2009/Name,10747,en.html ;

http://www.peoplemanagement.co.uk/pm/articles/2009/04/irish-recovery-plan-f
alters-over-pay-deal.htm

 

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Italy

 

Mass union protest in Rome

April 4, 2009

Demonstrators, in the hundreds of thousands, marched through the streets of Rome on Saturday 4 April in a protest organised by the CGIL, Italy’s largest union confederation, against Silvio Berlusconi’s government’s response to the economic crisis. CGIL leaders urged Berlusconi to open negotiations with them to discuss ways of dealing with the crisis. “This is a day we will remember for a long time,” said Guglielmo Epifani, general secretary of the CGIL, “There are so many of us. We represent the part of Italy that works, the pensioners, those without stable jobs.”

English: http://www.france24.com/en/20090404-italian-protesters-gather-en-masse-rome
-coliseum-demonstrators-economic ; http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,4152235,00.html

via http://www.labourstart.org/cgi-bin/show_news.pl?country=Italy

 

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Latvia

 

Protests over public sector pay cuts continue

April 15, 2009

On 1 April, teachers followed medical workers and police in protests against cuts in public sector pay. The government has imposed cuts of 15% across the public sector as part of a deal on a loan package with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the European Union. About 12,000 teachers were reported to demonstrate in Riga. Teachers' salaries were already trimmed 15% in January and are expected to be slashed a further 20% in June as the country's new center-right government cuts back to meet requirements for the bailout package.

English: http://www.epsu.org/cob/303 ;

http://www.pr-inside.com/thousands-of-teachers-in-latvia-protest-r1160064.h
tm

 

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Lithuania

 

Further demonstrations on public sector pay

April 15, 2009

Police, firefighters and border guards joined forces to protest over public sector pay cuts in front of the government buildings in the Vilnius capital on 2 April, while several other demonstrations took place outside Vilnius. The public sector unions plan to mobilise again on 25 April if the government fails to respond.

English: http://www.epsu.org/cob/303 ;

http://www.topnews.in/latvian-teachers-lithuanian-police-protest-pay-cuts-2
146588

 

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Luxembourg

 

Union confederation asks for government action

April 20, 2009

Until recently, various government ministers have reiterated their confidence in Luxembourg’s ability to withstand the crisis better than other countries. Yet, the Luxembourg Confederation of Independent Trade Unions (OGB-L) has stated to fear that an increasing number of companies, notably in financial services and the automotive industry, will introduce redundancy programs and job cuts. Against this backdrop, the confederation has asked the government to take clear action to maintain employment or to provide training for people who are affected by a redundancy program or threatened with redundancy. OGB-L insists that everything possible must be done to retain the skills and qualifications present in the Luxembourg job market, adding that this also applies to cross-border workers.

English: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2009/02/articles/lu0902029i.htm

French and German: http://www.ogbl.lu/

 

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Netherlands

 

Victory for Schiphol Airport cleaners

April 8, 2009

On 8 April, cleaners at Schiphol Airport ended their four days’ strike after the employers had met most of their demands. The FNV Bondgenoten (FNV Allies) union called this result a “great victory”. The cleaners have won travel expenses, job security and a Euro 50 bonus. Schiphol Airport will improve canteen as well as union facilities. In addition, all Dutch cleaners will receive a one-off bonus of 0.5% of their yearly wage. The cleaners’ strike was the culmination point of a campaign of over three months, that received broad support from fellow workers and the general public (See also this Collective Bargaining Newsletter, Year 2 March).

English: http://unionrenewal.blogspot.com/2009/04/victory-for-amsterdam-airport-clea
ners.html

Dutch: http://www.fnvbondgenoten.nl/branches_bedrijven/branches/dienstverlening/sc
hoonmaak/overwinning_voor_schoonmakers_/

Union negotiates crisis package with car dealers

April 3, 2009

The FNV Bondgenoten union has agreed with Bovag, the retail trade association of car dealers, on a package of measures to keep vulnerable workers in employment within the sector, through temporary measures financed by the industry itself. Employers retaining older workers can get a grant up to Euro 10,000 per worker, while they also can claim a pension guarantee up to Euro 5,000. A third measure includes a training guarantee for students combining work and learning in the so-called BBL scheme.

English: press release FNV Bondgenoten

Debates on terms of part-time unemployment payments

April 21, 2009

The new part-time unemployment scheme that the government introduced as of 1 April meets quite some union resistance. Especially the three unions representing workers in manufacturing and transport, FNV Bondgenoten, CNV Bedrijvenbond and De Unie, want employers to supplement unemployment benefits to 100% of the former wage instead of 85% as the scheme provides for without supplementary payments (if a worker is 50% unemployed). The president of the FME-CWM, the Metal Employers’ Association, argues that maintaining the union demands may lead to the dismissal of thousands of workers. The social partners have taken the issue up to the Labour Foundation, their top negotiating body, and promised that this Foundation will soon produce recommendations for negotiators at industry level (See also this Collective Bargaining Newsletter Year 2 January, February and March).

Dutch: De Volkskrant, April 16, 2009 ; NRC-Handelsblad, April 21, 2009

 

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Norway

 

Agreement in national wage negotiations

April 1, 2009

On 1 April, parties involved in the national wage bargaining round, the Norwegian Confederations of Trade Unions (LO) and the NHO employers’ association, came to an agreement. There will be a general wage increase of NOK 1 (Euro 0.11) per hour, with an extra NOK 1 for the lowest paid workers, those below 90% of an average industrial worker’s wage. The general wage increase adds up to NOK 2,200 (Euro 227) per year. “We should consider the fact that we are in a difficult situation in the industry,” LO president Roar Flåthen commented.

English: http://www.norwaypost.no/content/view/21848/26/

via http://www.labourstart.org/cgi-bin/show_news.pl?country=Norway

 

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Poland

 

Miners agree to wage terms

April 6, 2009

Miners at Europe’s largest coal company, Poland’s Kompania Weglowa, decided not to effectuate a 24-hour strike action on 7 April, following an agreement on wages five days earlier. State-owned Kompania Weglowa and most of the 12 unions representing miners, led by NSZZ Solidarność and Kadra as well as the Polish Miners’ Trade Union, reached an accord including significant wage increases for 2009. On 2 April, the company’s supervisory board agreed to increase salaries by PLN 900 per month (Euro 200), or about 5%. The miners’ unions had initially been seeking an 8% increase, but lowered demands to 6% during mid-diation efforts (See also this Collective Bargaining Newsletter Year 2 March 2009).

March meEnglish: http://www.icem.org/en/78-ICEM-InBrief/3126-Polish-Miners-at-Kompania-Weglo
wa-Agree-to-Wage-Terms

 

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Portugal

 

Union signs local agreements for firefighters

April 20, 2009

By the end of March the STAL local government union signed two new agreements with local fire associations in Vila de Rei and Covilhã. The agreement with the Vila de Rei association includes a pay structure setting down rates for shift work and for working on rest days and holidays. It also includes a new career framework, a range of provisions covering other allowances and annual paid leave of 25 days. The Covilhã agreement also sets out the main working conditions for firefighters in terms of careers, shift systems, allowances for travel and holidays. In addition there is a Euro 74 increase in pay.

English: http://www.epsu.org/cob/303 ;

Portuguese: http://www.stal.pt/artigo.asp?id=1015

 

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Romania

 

IMF loan will lead to public sector pay cuts

April 15, 2009

The government has signed a loan agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the European Union implying substantial cuts in public spending, cuts in public sector jobs and a freeze on pay. The EPSU regional officer in Romania reports that the IMF has asked the Romanian government to freeze the public sector pay bill and allocate the additional income exclusively to investments. Over the next four years, the pay bill, which has more than doubled in the last three years, must be gradually reduced from 8% to 5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The IMF requires that the cut in the pay bill is proportional to the contraction in the economy.

English: http://www.epsu.org/cob/303 ; http://euobserver.com/9/27852

 

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Spain

 

Union federations call for government action on basic law

April 15, 2009

The FSC-CCOO, FSP-UGT and CSI-CSIF public service federations have mobilised for protests on 15 April, demanding action from the government on the basic statute on public sector employment. The law was passed in 2007 but the unions claim that since then the government has done nothing to implement its provisions that should have created a more homogenous system of public service across the state administration and the autonomous regions and dealt with specific issues such as lifelong learning. The unions say that two years is too long to wait for action and that the crisis should not be an excuse for further delay.

English: http://www.epsu.org/cob/303 ;

Spanish: http://www.fsap.ccoo.es/webfsap/menu.do?Actualidad:Sindical:Actualidad:5639
3 ;

http://www.fspugt.es/index.php/mod.noticias/mem.detalle/idnoticia.8628/cat.
1142

 

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Sweden

 

Number of company-level crisis packages grows rapidly

April 16, 2009

The number of local unions in Sweden’s manufacturing sector agreeing to pay cuts and shorter working hours in an effort to save jobs is increasing rapidly. According to the IF Metall union and the Association of Swedish Engineering Industries, one of the largest employers’ groups in the manufacturing sector, in recent months between 100 and 150 crisis packages have been signed around the country between union representatives and employers. “It’s speeded up a great deal recently,” said IF Metall’s Veli-Pekka Säikkälä to a news agency, adding that he reckons the agreements have likely saved thousands of jobs. The engineering association’s chief negotiator Anders Weihe adds that a number of agreements may have been reached with smaller companies without the knowledge of the union or the association.

English: http://www.thelocal.se/18894/20090416/

via http://www.labourstart.org/cgi-bin/show_news.pl?country=Sweden

 

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United Kingdom

 

Local government employers offer 0.5%

April 15, 2009

The GMB, Unison and Unite unions representing 1.3 million local government employees rejected the employers’ offer of a 0.5% pay increase for 2009, arguing that many local authorities had already budgeted for higher increases and contrasting it with the high pay increases awarded to top management in the sector. Heather Wakefield, UNISON Head of Local Government, said: “I am bitterly disappointed and surprised at the offer. We know that most local authorities have budgeted for an increase of between 1.5 and 2%.” Brian Strutton, GMB National Secretary, commented: “They are pleading poverty, yet those at the top are awarding themselves ever larger salaries.”

English: http://www.epsu.org/cob/303 ; http://www.unison.org.uk/asppresspack/pressrelease_view.asp?id=1395 ; http://www.gmb.org.uk/Templates/Internal.asp?NodeID=98429

Union pleas for manufacturing at the heart of the budget

April 20, 2009

Unite, the UK’s largest union, is calling on the government to put manufacturing at the heart of the budget. Unions and employers are united in demanding that the budget revealed on 22 April should contain measures to save the jobs of hundreds of thousands of manufacturing workers through the implementation of short time working compensation schemes. Unite is also calling for speedier access to credit from the banks to ensure immediate support for manufacturing businesses; extra government financing for manufacturing in keeping with the levels of assistance provided to manufacturers by competitors abroad, and action to stimulate demand, including a scrappage scheme.

English: http://www.unitetheunion.com/news__events/latest_news/unite_says_put_manufa
cturing_a.aspx

 
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For more information

For more information, please contact the editor Maarten van Klaveren, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies (AIAS) M.vanKlaveren@uva.nl , or the communications officer of the ETUI Tristan Macdonald tmacdonald@etui.org . For previous issues of the Collective bargaining newsletter please visit www.etui.org/publications . You may find further information on the ETUI at www.etui.org , and on the AIAS at www.uva-aias.net . © ETUI aisbl, Brussels 2009. All rights reserved. We encourage the distribution of this newsletter and of the information it contains, for non-commercial purposes and provided the source is credited. The ETUI is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. The ETUI is financially supported by the European Community. The European Community is not responsible for any use made of the information contained in this publication.To unsubscribe, please contact Tristan Macdonald tmacdonald@etui.org .
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