Living Wage Series - United Kingdom - January 2018 - In Pound Sterling, per Month

The Living Wage is based on the concept that work should provide an adequate income to cover the necessary living costs of a family. WageIndicator uses prices from the Cost of Living Survey to calculate Living Wage in more than 60 countries. The Living Wage is an approximate income needed to meet a family’s basic needs including food, housing, transport, health, education, tax deductions and other necessities.

The following table summarises the varying expenditure and income needs for the three commonly occurring family household compositions.

Expenditure and Living Wage calculation (monthly rates in Pound Sterling)

  Typical family Standard family Single-adult
  from-to from-to from-to
Food 345-485 355-495 89-125
Housing 630-895 630-895 400-555
Transport 100-120 100-120 50-61
Health 30-50 30-50 8-13
Education 0-50 0-50 0
Other costs 55-80 56-81 27-38
Total Expenditure 1160-1680 1171-1691 574-792
Net Living Wage 725-1050 651-939 574-792
Gross Living Wage 875-1270 785-1140 695-960

Note: For more details see Living Wage FAQ.

Family Living Wages (monthly rates in Pound Sterling)

There is not a single answer to what is the adequate cost of living. The result is complex, as the cost of living varies by household composition, location, and employment pattern. The following table presents the Living Wage estimates for a set of most common family household compositions and under different assumptions about working hours.

Typical family (two parents + 1.9 children, 1.6 working) 875-1270
Standard family (two parents + 2 children, 1.8 working) 785-1140
Two parents and two children, 2 working 710-1030
Two parents and two children, 1.5 working 945-1370
Two parents and two children, 1 working 1420-2050
Two parents and three children, 1.6 working 955-1380
Two parents and four children, 1.6 working 1030-1480
Single-adult without children, 1 working 695-960

Note: Results in the table are rounded.

Living Wages in Context (monthly rates in Pound Sterling)

The Minimum Wage is a national legally binding obligation on employers which often make no reference to a living standard. Living Wage describes the adequate living standard. The common goal of the many living wage campaigns currently taking place all over the world is to lift Minimum Wages levels to those of the Living Wages. WageIndicator presents Living Wages jointly with Minimum Wages, aiming to raise awareness concerning the remaining differences in levels. Living Wages are presented in context with other wage indicators including prevailing wages of workers over recent years.

  2015 2016 2017 2018
Minimum wage 1074 1193 1243 1243
Living Wage - Single Adult 650-850 645-835 670-910 695-960
Living Wage - Typical Family 890-1220 845-1170 860-1210 875-1270
Real wage of low-skilled worker 1020-1180 1090-1300 1040-1180 1150-1310
Real wage of medium-skilled worker 1160-1430 1290-1610 1180-1420 1270-1540
Real wage of high-skilled worker 1610-2170 1850-2460 1610-2110 1770-2330

Note: Table shows the lowest monthly Minimum Wage in a country, when available. Reported monthly earnings of workers in low-, medium-, and high-skilled occupations are obtained from the voluntary WageIndicator web survey on work and wages. Results in the table are rounded.

Food basket and food prices in Pound Sterling

The food expenditure is the main component of Living Wage and it is determined by the price of food basket. The food prices are taken from WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey which collects the actual prices of all items necessary to calculate the Living Wage. The composition of the food basket is taken from the national food balance sheets published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The food basket is scaled to 2,100 calories per person per day that is the nutritional requirement for good health proposed by World Bank (Handbook on poverty and inequality, 2009).

Food itemGrams per dayEnergy (kcal)Price per kilo
Wheat, barley and cereals products 188 512 1.9-2
Rice 11 44 1-1.8
Meat (beef, pork, poultry) 147 286 4-6.4
Oils (soyabean, olive, palm) 27 251 1-1
Sugar (Raw Equivalent) 68 242 1-1
Maize and products 5 16 1-1
Milk - Excluding Butter 409 219 .8-1
Vegetables, Other 113 31 1.7-2
Potatoes and products 183 116 1.2-2
Butter, Ghee 10 73 1-2
Groundnuts (Shelled Eq) 9 30 .-.
Pulses, Other and products 2 8 1-2
Egg (price per 10 eggs) 20 28 1-1.7
Sunflowerseed Oil 4 34 .9-1.4
Fish products 37 25 5-8
Beer 123 60 3-4.4
Sweeteners, Other 3 8 1-1
Beans 0 1 1-1
Bananas 29 18 1-1.6
Soyabeans 0 0 1-2
Yams 0 1 1-2
Apples and products 47 14 1.2-2
Tomatoes and products 38 8 1-1.7
Onions 20 8 1-1.2
Oranges, Mandarines 67 19 1.8-2.2
Plantains 1 1 1-2
Peas 3 12 1-1.3
Roots, Other 0 0 1-1
Seeds and kernels 0 3 1-1
Wine 33 23 6.7-8
Cream 0 1 1.6-2.4
Olives (including preserved) 1 1 1-1
Honey 1 3 1.2-3
Citrus, Other 1 0 1-1.5
Lemons, Limes and products 4 1 1-1.3
Tea (including mate) 3 1 1.5-3
Grapefruit and products 7 2 1-1.5
Coffee and products 5 2 3-4.4

WageIndicator Living Wage background:

The WageIndicator Living Wage is set to provide acceptable living standard to a family of a particular size. WageIndicator presents Living Wages for several household types and working hours which reflect the most frequently found real situations in which people have to make a living: 1. Typical family Living Wage is a baseline estimate that respects the country specific conditions. Typical family is comprised of two adults and the number of children is given by country specific fertility rate (the average number of children a woman is expected to have during her lifespan). One adult is working full-time and the working hours of second adult are approximated by national employment rate. The total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 2. Standard family Living Wage is estimated for a family composed of two adults and two children (referred to as family 2+2). Living wage is calculated under different assumptions about working hours. These include that both adults work full-time (family employment rate is 2), or at least one adult works part-time or half-time (family employment rate is 1.8 and 1.5), or one adult does not work at all (i.e. patriarchal model with family employment 1). Alternatives refer to trade-offs between leisure and work and define what living wage represents. In every case the total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 3. Extended family Living Wage includes family with three or four children. One adult works full-time and the work intensity of second parent is approximated by national employment rate. 4. Individual Living Wage represents an acceptable standard of living for a single individual working full-time.

Data sources: WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey, World Bank Databank Fertility rate 2010-2014, ILO Estimated participation rate in 2017, FAO Food balance sheet in 2013.