Living Wage Series - Turkey - December 2018 - In Turkish Lira, per Month

The Living Wage is based on the concept that work should provide an adequate income to cover the necessary living costs of a family. WageIndicator uses prices from the Cost of Living Survey to calculate Living Wage in more than 60 countries. The Living Wage is an approximate income needed to meet a family’s basic needs including food, housing, transport, health, education, tax deductions and other necessities.

The following table summarises the varying expenditure and income needs for the three commonly occurring family household compositions.

Expenditure and Living Wage calculation (monthly rates in Turkish Lira)

  Typical family Standard family Single-adult
  from-to from-to from-to
Food 665-990 650-965 160-240
Housing 1120-1490 1120-1490 630-855
Transport 300-400 300-400 150-200
Health 175-625 175-625 44-155
Education 175-200 175-200 0
Other costs 120-185 120-185 49-73
Total Expenditure 2555-3890 2540-3865 1033-1524
Net Living Wage 1703-2593 1411-2147 1033-1524
Gross Living Wage 2250-3430 1870-2840 1370-2010

Note: For more details see Living Wage FAQ.


Family Living Wages (monthly rates in Turkish Lira)

There is not a single answer to what is the adequate cost of living. The result is complex, as the cost of living varies by household composition, location, and employment pattern. The following table presents the Living Wage estimates for a set of most common family household compositions and under different assumptions about working hours.

Typical family (two parents + 2.1 children, 1.5 working) 2250-3430
Standard family (two parents + 2 children, 1.8 working) 1870-2840
Two parents and two children, 2 working 1680-2550
Two parents and two children, 1.5 working 2240-3400
Two parents and two children, 1 working 3360-5100
Two parents and three children, 1.5 working 2390-3630
Two parents and four children, 1.5 working 2540-3850
Single-adult without children, 1 working 1370-2010

Note: Results in the table are rounded.


Living Wages in Context (monthly rates in Turkish Lira)

The Minimum Wage is a national legally binding obligation on employers which often make no reference to a living standard. Living Wage describes the adequate living standard. The common goal of the many living wage campaigns currently taking place all over the world is to lift Minimum Wages levels to those of the Living Wages. WageIndicator presents Living Wages jointly with Minimum Wages, aiming to raise awareness concerning the remaining differences in levels. Living Wages are presented in context with other wage indicators including prevailing wages of workers over recent years.

  2015 2016 2017 2018
Minimum wage 1274 1647 1778 2030
Living Wage - Single Adult 1200-1840 1230-1840 1300-1910 1370-2010
Living Wage - Typical Family 2040-3220 2080-3220 2160-3310 2250-3430
Real wage of low-skilled worker - - - 1190-1380
Real wage of medium-skilled worker - - - 1300-1660
Real wage of high-skilled worker - - - 2400-2830

Note: Table shows the lowest monthly Minimum Wage in a country, when available. Reported monthly earnings of workers in low-, medium-, and high-skilled occupations are obtained from the voluntary WageIndicator web survey on work and wages. Results in the table are rounded.

Turkey Graph

Food basket and food prices in Turkish Lira

The food expenditure is the main component of Living Wage and it is determined by the price of food basket. The food prices are taken from WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey which collects the actual prices of all items necessary to calculate the Living Wage. The composition of the food basket is taken from the national food balance sheets published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The food basket is scaled to 2,100 calories per person per day that is the nutritional requirement for good health proposed by World Bank (Handbook on poverty and inequality, 2009).

Food item Grams per day Energy (kcal) Price per kilo
Wheat, barley and cereals products 278 768 2-2.8
Rice 17 57 3-3.5
Meat (beef, pork, poultry) 58 81 12-25
Oils (soyabean, olive, palm) 22 193 -
Sugar (Raw Equivalent) 49 174 10-12
Maize and products 39 114 3-3
Milk - Excluding Butter 312 181 2-2.6
Vegetables, Other 199 42 2-4
Potatoes and products 64 46 1-1.5
Butter, Ghee 6 45 20-25
Groundnuts (Shelled Eq) 14 45 20-23
Pulses, Other and products 16 57 2-3
Egg (price per 10 eggs) 13 19 2.7-5
Sunflowerseed Oil 14 127 -
Fish products 10 6 10-12
Beer (0.5 liter/pint) 19 8 12-14
Sweeteners, Other 0 1 5-10
Beans 4 15 4-7.5
Bananas 8 5 3.5-4
Soyabeans 3 2 3.5-9
Apples and products 54 22 2-3
Tomatoes and products 158 31 2-3
Onions 30 12 1-1.4
Oranges, Mandarines 38 9 -
Peas 0 1 5-7
Roots, Other 0 0 2-2
Seeds and kernels 1 5 11-30
Wine (bottle) 1 1 33-40
Cream 0 0 6-8
Olives (including preserved) 8 23 10-10
Honey 2 6 -
Citrus, Other 0 0 2-2
Lemons, Limes and products 6 1 2-2
Tea (including mate) 5 2 7-12
Grapefruit and products 2 1 1.8-1.8
Coffee and products 1 1 50-50


WageIndicator Living Wage background:

The WageIndicator Living Wage is set to provide acceptable living standard to a family of a particular size. WageIndicator presents Living Wages for several household types and working hours which reflect the most frequently found real situations in which people have to make a living: 1. Typical family Living Wage is a baseline estimate that respects the country specific conditions. Typical family is comprised of two adults and the number of children is given by country specific fertility rate (the average number of children a woman is expected to have during her lifespan). One adult is working full-time and the working hours of second adult are approximated by national employment rate. The total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 2. Standard family Living Wage is estimated for a family composed of two adults and two children (referred to as family 2+2). Living wage is calculated under different assumptions about working hours. These include that both adults work full-time (family employment rate is 2), or at least one adult works part-time or half-time (family employment rate is 1.8 and 1.5), or one adult does not work at all (i.e. patriarchal model with family employment 1). Alternatives refer to trade-offs between leisure and work and define what living wage represents. In every case the total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 3. Extended family Living Wage includes family with three or four children. One adult works full-time and the work intensity of second parent is approximated by national employment rate. 4. Individual Living Wage represents an acceptable standard of living for a single individual working full-time.

Data sources: WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey, World Bank Databank Fertility rate 2010-2014, ILO Estimated participation rate in 2017, FAO Food balance sheet in 2013.

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