Living Wage Series - Spain - January 2018 - In Euro, per Month

Living wages, Wages in context - Spain

The Living Wage is based on the concept that work should provide an adequate income to cover the necessary living costs of a family. WageIndicator uses prices from the Cost of Living Survey to calculate Living Wage in more than 60 countries. The Living Wage is an approximate income needed to meet a family’s basic needs including food, housing, transport, health, education, tax deductions and other necessities.

The following table summarises the varying expenditure and income needs for the three commonly occurring family household compositions.

Expenditure and Living Wage calculation (monthly rates in Euro)

  Typical family Standard family Single-adult
  from-to from-to from-to
Food 295-390 355-475 89-120
Housing 540-730 540-730 340-460
Transport 80-100 80-100 40-50
Health 45-65 45-65 11-16
Education 50-120 50-120 0
Other costs 50-70 53-74 24-32
Total Expenditure 1060-1475 1123-1564 504-678
Net Living Wage 663-922 624-869 504-678
Gross Living Wage 790-1100 740-1040 600-805

Note: For more details see Living Wage FAQ.

Family Living Wages (monthly rates in Euro)

There is not a single answer to what is the adequate cost of living. The result is complex, as the cost of living varies by household composition, location, and employment pattern. The following table presents the Living Wage estimates for a set of most common family household compositions and under different assumptions about working hours.

Typical family (two parents + 1.3 children, 1.6 working) 790-1100
Standard family (two parents + 2 children, 1.8 working) 740-1040
Two parents and two children, 2 working 670-930
Two parents and two children, 1.5 working 890-1240
Two parents and two children, 1 working 1340-1860
Two parents and three children, 1.6 working 905-1260
Two parents and four children, 1.6 working 975-1350
Single-adult without children, 1 working 600-805

Note: Results in the table are rounded.

Living Wages in Context (monthly rates in Euro)

The Minimum Wage is a national legally binding obligation on employers which often make no reference to a living standard. Living Wage describes the adequate living standard. The common goal of the many living wage campaigns currently taking place all over the world is to lift Minimum Wages levels to those of the Living Wages. WageIndicator presents Living Wages jointly with Minimum Wages, aiming to raise awareness concerning the remaining differences in levels. Living Wages are presented in context with other wage indicators including prevailing wages of workers over recent years.

  2015 2016 2017 2018
Minimum wage 756 764 826 859
Living Wage - Single Adult 555-725 590-790 575-755 600-805
Living Wage - Typical Family 785-1100 795-1100 770-1070 790-1100
Real wage of low-skilled worker 905-1150 780-930 750-895 790-930
Real wage of medium-skilled worker 1140-1480 1020-1290 990-1240 1030-1270
Real wage of high-skilled worker 1550-2120 1510-2040 1490-1990 1500-1990

Note: Table shows the lowest monthly Minimum Wage in a country, when available. Reported monthly earnings of workers in low-, medium-, and high-skilled occupations are obtained from the voluntary WageIndicator web survey on work and wages. Results in the table are rounded.

Food basket and food prices in Euro

The food expenditure is the main component of Living Wage and it is determined by the price of food basket. The food prices are taken from WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey which collects the actual prices of all items necessary to calculate the Living Wage. The composition of the food basket is taken from the national food balance sheets published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The food basket is scaled to 2,100 calories per person per day that is the nutritional requirement for good health proposed by World Bank (Handbook on poverty and inequality, 2009).

Food itemGrams per dayEnergy (kcal)Price per kilo
Wheat, barley and cereals products 178 471 1.4-2
Rice 15 58 .8-1
Meat (beef, pork, poultry) 184 263 5-6
Oils (soyabean, olive, palm) 30 260 3-3.5
Sugar (Raw Equivalent) 56 198 1-1
Maize and products 4 10 2-3
Milk - Excluding Butter 305 164 .7-.9
Vegetables, Other 110 29 1.4-2
Potatoes and products 112 71 .5-.8
Butter, Ghee 4 28 2-3
Groundnuts (Shelled Eq) 14 36 2-3
Pulses, Other and products 7 22 .5-1.1
Egg (price per 10 eggs) 25 35 1-1.2
Sunflowerseed Oil 22 193 1.2-1.5
Fish products 79 58 6-9
Beer 139 68 1.6-2.1
Sweeteners, Other 1 3 .6-1
Beans 2 6 .5-.8
Sweet potatoes 0 0 .4-1
Bananas 12 7 1.2-1.6
Soyabeans 0 0 .5-.5
Yams 0 0 .5-.5
Apples and products 19 9 1-1.5
Tomatoes and products 77 14 1-1.5
Onions 34 14 .6-1
Oranges, Mandarines 43 14 1-1.5
Plantains 1 1 1-1.7
Peas 1 5 .5-1
Roots, Other 0 0 1-2
Seeds and kernels 3 9 2-2
Wine 39 26 4-5.3
Pineapples and products 9 4 .-.
Cream 4 7 2.5-5
Olives (including preserved) 6 7 3-4
Honey 1 3 3-5
Citrus, Other 0 0 1-1.3
Lemons, Limes and products 7 1 1-1.4
Tea (including mate) 0 0 3.5-3.5
Grapefruit and products 0 0 1-1.5
Coffee and products 7 3 2.7-5

WageIndicator Living Wage background:

The WageIndicator Living Wage is set to provide acceptable living standard to a family of a particular size. WageIndicator presents Living Wages for several household types and working hours which reflect the most frequently found real situations in which people have to make a living: 1. Typical family Living Wage is a baseline estimate that respects the country specific conditions. Typical family is comprised of two adults and the number of children is given by country specific fertility rate (the average number of children a woman is expected to have during her lifespan). One adult is working full-time and the working hours of second adult are approximated by national employment rate. The total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 2. Standard family Living Wage is estimated for a family composed of two adults and two children (referred to as family 2+2). Living wage is calculated under different assumptions about working hours. These include that both adults work full-time (family employment rate is 2), or at least one adult works part-time or half-time (family employment rate is 1.8 and 1.5), or one adult does not work at all (i.e. patriarchal model with family employment 1). Alternatives refer to trade-offs between leisure and work and define what living wage represents. In every case the total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 3. Extended family Living Wage includes family with three or four children. One adult works full-time and the work intensity of second parent is approximated by national employment rate. 4. Individual Living Wage represents an acceptable standard of living for a single individual working full-time.

Data sources: WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey, World Bank Databank Fertility rate 2010-2014, ILO Estimated participation rate in 2017, FAO Food balance sheet in 2013.