Living Wage Series - Finland - January 2018 - In Euro, per Month

The Living Wage is based on the concept that work should provide an adequate income to cover the necessary living costs of a family. WageIndicator uses prices from the Cost of Living Survey to calculate Living Wage in more than 60 countries. The Living Wage is an approximate income needed to meet a family’s basic needs including food, housing, transport, health, education, tax deductions and other necessities.

The following table summarises the varying expenditure and income needs for the three commonly occurring family household compositions.

Expenditure and Living Wage calculation (monthly rates in Euro)

  Typical family Standard family Single-adult
  from-to from-to from-to
Food 550-750 580-790 145-200
Housing 835-970 835-970 500-565
Transport 100-110 100-110 50-55
Health 50-80 50-80 13-20
Education 40-100 40-100 0
Other costs 79-100 80-105 35-42
Total Expenditure 1654-2110 1685-2155 743-882
Net Living Wage 1034-1319 936-1197 743-882
Gross Living Wage 1360-1730 1230-1570 975-1160

Note: For more details see Living Wage FAQ.

Family Living Wages (monthly rates in Euro)

There is not a single answer to what is the adequate cost of living. The result is complex, as the cost of living varies by household composition, location, and employment pattern. The following table presents the Living Wage estimates for a set of most common family household compositions and under different assumptions about working hours.

Typical family (two parents + 1.8 children, 1.6 working) 1360-1730
Standard family (two parents + 2 children, 1.8 working) 1230-1570
Two parents and two children, 2 working 1110-1410
Two parents and two children, 1.5 working 1470-1880
Two parents and two children, 1 working 2210-2830
Two parents and three children, 1.6 working 1510-1930
Two parents and four children, 1.6 working 1630-2110
Single-adult without children, 1 working 975-1160

Note: Results in the table are rounded.

Living Wages in Context (monthly rates in Euro)

The Minimum Wage is a national legally binding obligation on employers which often make no reference to a living standard. Living Wage describes the adequate living standard. The common goal of the many living wage campaigns currently taking place all over the world is to lift Minimum Wages levels to those of the Living Wages. WageIndicator presents Living Wages jointly with Minimum Wages, aiming to raise awareness concerning the remaining differences in levels. Living Wages are presented in context with other wage indicators including prevailing wages of workers over recent years.

  2015 2016 2017 2018
Minimum wage . . . .
Living Wage - Single Adult 875-1050 920-1160 965-1160 975-1160
Living Wage - Typical Family 1280-1650 1300-1780 1360-1780 1360-1730
Real wage of low-skilled worker 1530-1980 1260-1580 1540-2000 1530-1980
Real wage of medium-skilled worker 2170-2660 1850-2190 2200-2690 2200-2680
Real wage of high-skilled worker 3330-4250 2940-3650 3320-4230 3350-4250

Note: Table shows the lowest monthly Minimum Wage in a country, when available. Reported monthly earnings of workers in low-, medium-, and high-skilled occupations are obtained from the voluntary WageIndicator web survey on work and wages. Results in the table are rounded.

Food basket and food prices in Euro

The food expenditure is the main component of Living Wage and it is determined by the price of food basket. The food prices are taken from WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey which collects the actual prices of all items necessary to calculate the Living Wage. The composition of the food basket is taken from the national food balance sheets published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The food basket is scaled to 2,100 calories per person per day that is the nutritional requirement for good health proposed by World Bank (Handbook on poverty and inequality, 2009).

Food itemGrams per dayEnergy (kcal)Price per kilo
Wheat, barley and cereals products 199 593 2-4
Rice 8 29 1.5-2
Meat (beef, pork, poultry) 142 348 8-10
Oils (soyabean, olive, palm) 16 138 .-.
Sugar (Raw Equivalent) 50 180 1-1
Maize and products 0 0 4-4
Milk - Excluding Butter 774 333 .8-1
Vegetables, Other 118 29 2-4
Potatoes and products 118 77 1-1.2
Butter, Ghee 12 88 3-4
Groundnuts (Shelled Eq) 6 20 9-15
Pulses, Other and products 0 0 3.5-4
Egg (price per 10 eggs) 17 24 1.3-1.7
Fish products 65 48 11-15
Beer 144 71 3.4-4
Sweeteners, Other 6 16 1-1.2
Beans 0 0 3-4
Sweet potatoes 1 1 4-4.2
Bananas 24 15 1.2-1.5
Soyabeans 0 0 4-6
Yams 0 0 4-5
Apples and products 31 9 1.6-2
Tomatoes and products 30 6 2-3
Onions 11 5 1-1.4
Oranges, Mandarines 56 12 .-.
Plantains 0 0 2-2
Peas 2 7 4-4.5
Roots, Other 0 0 1.5-2
Seeds and kernels 0 3 8-15
Wine 21 14 12-13
Cream 10 20 3-5
Olives (including preserved) 1 1 4.8-5
Honey 1 3 .-.
Citrus, Other 1 0 2-3
Lemons, Limes and products 2 0 2.5-3
Tea (including mate) 1 0 4-8
Grapefruit and products 1 0 2.8-3.9
Coffee and products 22 10 3.9-4.5

WageIndicator Living Wage background:

The WageIndicator Living Wage is set to provide acceptable living standard to a family of a particular size. WageIndicator presents Living Wages for several household types and working hours which reflect the most frequently found real situations in which people have to make a living: 1. Typical family Living Wage is a baseline estimate that respects the country specific conditions. Typical family is comprised of two adults and the number of children is given by country specific fertility rate (the average number of children a woman is expected to have during her lifespan). One adult is working full-time and the working hours of second adult are approximated by national employment rate. The total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 2. Standard family Living Wage is estimated for a family composed of two adults and two children (referred to as family 2+2). Living wage is calculated under different assumptions about working hours. These include that both adults work full-time (family employment rate is 2), or at least one adult works part-time or half-time (family employment rate is 1.8 and 1.5), or one adult does not work at all (i.e. patriarchal model with family employment 1). Alternatives refer to trade-offs between leisure and work and define what living wage represents. In every case the total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 3. Extended family Living Wage includes family with three or four children. One adult works full-time and the work intensity of second parent is approximated by national employment rate. 4. Individual Living Wage represents an acceptable standard of living for a single individual working full-time.

Data sources: WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey, World Bank Databank Fertility rate 2010-2014, ILO Estimated participation rate in 2017, FAO Food balance sheet in 2013.