Living wage Series - Turkey - October 2017 - In TRY per Month

WageIndicator Living Wage Series - Wages in Context - Living Wages / in 2017

The Living Wage is based on the concept that work should provide an adequate income to cover the necessary living costs of a family. WageIndicator uses prices from the Cost of Living Survey to calculate Living Wage for 60 countries. The Living Wage is an approximate income needed to meet a family’s basic needs including food, housing, transport, health, education, tax deductions and other necessities.

The following table summarises the varying expenditure and income needs for the three commonly occurring family household compositions.

Expenditure and Living Wage calculation (monthly rates in Turkish Lira)

  Typical family   Standard family   Single-adult  
  from to from to from to
Food 655 1010 640 985 160 245
Housing 955 1300 955 1300 565 750
Transport 260 350 260 350 130 175
Health 50 200 50 200 13 50
Education 150 200 150 200 0 0
Other costs 105 155 105 150 43 61
Total Expenditure 2175 3215 2160 3185 911 1281
Net Living Wage 1450 2143 1200 1769 911 1281
Gross Living Wage 1950 2870 1610 2370 1220 1720

Note: For more details see Living Wage FAQ.

Family Living Wages (monthly rates in Turkish Lira)

There is not a single answer to what is the adequate cost of living. The result is complex, as the cost of living varies by household composition, location, and employment pattern. The following table presents the Living Wage estimates for a set of most common family household compositions and under different assumptions about working hours.

  from to
Typical family (two parents + 2.1 children, 1.5 working) 1950 2870
Standard family (two parents + 2 children, 1.8 working) 1610 2370
Two parents and two children, 2 working 1450 2140
Two parents and two children, 1.5 working 1930 2850
Two parents and two children, 1 working 2900 4270
Two parents and three children, 1.5 working 2080 3080
Two parents and four children, 1.5 working 2230 3310
Single-adult without children, 1 working 1220 1720

Note: Results in the table are rounded.

Living Wages in Context (monthly rates in Turkish Lira)

The Minimum Wage is a national legally binding obligation on employers which often make no reference to a living standard. Living Wage describes the adequate living standard. The common goal of the many living wage campaigns currently taking place all over the world is to lift Minimum Wages levels to those of the Living Wages. WageIndicator presents Living Wages jointly with Minimum Wages, aiming to raise awareness concerning the remaining differences in levels. Living Wages are presented in context with other wage indicators including prevailing wages of workers over recent years.

  2014 . 2015 . 2016 . 2017 .
  from to from to from to from to
Minimum wage 1071 1134 1202 1274 1647 1647 1778 1778
Living Wage - Single Adult 990 1330 1030 1440 1130 1690 1220 1720
Living Wage - Typical Family 1810 2430 1720 2540 1840 2830 1950 2870
Real wage of low-skilled worker . . . . . . 1190 1380
Real wage of medium-skilled worker . . . . . . 1300 1660
Real wage of high-skilled worker . . . . . . 2400 2830

Note: Table shows the lowest monthly Minimum Wage in a country, when available. Reported monthly earnings of workers in low-, medium-, and high-skilled occupations are obtained from the voluntary WageIndicator web survey on work and wages. Results in the table are rounded.


Food basket and food prices in Turkish Lira

The food expenditure is the main component of Living Wage and it is determined by the price of food basket. The food prices are taken from WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey which collects the actual prices of all items necessary to calculate the Living Wage. The composition of the food basket is taken from the national food balance sheets published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The food basket is scaled to 2,100 calories per person per day that is the nutritional requirement for good health proposed by World Bank (Handbook on poverty and inequality, 2009).

Food itemGrams per dayEnergy (kcal)Price per kilo fromto
Wheat, barley and cereals 278 768 2 2.8
Rice 17 57 3 3.5
Meat (beef, pork, poultry) 58 81 12 25
Oils (soyabean, olive, palm) 22 193 . .
Sugar (Raw Equivalent) 49 174 10 12
Maize and products 39 114 3 3
Milk - Excluding Butter 312 181 2 2.6
Vegetables, Other 199 42 2 4
Potatoes and products 64 46 1 1.5
Butter, Ghee 6 45 17.5 25
Groundnuts (Shelled Eq) 14 45 16 23
Pulses, Other and products 16 57 2 2.5
Egg (price per 10 eggs) 13 19 2.7 5
Sunflowerseed Oil 14 127 . .
Fish products 10 6 10 12
Beer 19 8 12 14
Sweeteners, Other 0 1 5 10
Beans 4 15 4 5.8
Bananas 8 5 3.5 4
Soyabeans 3 2 3.5 9
Apples and products 54 22 2 3
Tomatoes and products 158 31 2 4
Onions 30 12 1 1.4
Oranges, Mandarines 38 9 . .
Peas 0 1 5 6
Roots, Other 0 0 2 2
Seeds and kernels 1 5 11 30
Wine 1 1 33.3 40
Cream 0 0 6 8
Olives (including preserved) 8 23 10 10
Honey 2 6 . .
Citrus, Other 0 0 2 2
Lemons, Limes and products 6 1 2 2
Tea (including mate) 5 2 7 12
Grapefruit and products 2 1 1.8 1.8
Coffee and products 1 1 50 50

WageIndicator Living Wage background:

The WageIndicator Living Wage is set to provide acceptable living standard to a family of a particular size. WageIndicator presents Living Wages for several household types and working hours which reflect the most frequently found real situations in which people have to make a living: 1. Typical family Living Wage is a baseline estimate that respects the country specific conditions. Typical family is comprised of two adults and the number of children is given by country specific fertility rate (the average number of children a woman is expected to have during her lifespan). One adult is working full-time and the working hours of second adult are approximated by national employment rate. The total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 2. Standard family Living Wage is estimated for a family composed of two adults and two children (referred to as family 2+2). Living wage is calculated under different assumptions about working hours. These include that both adults work full-time (family employment rate is 2), or at least one adult works part-time or half-time (family employment rate is 1.8 and 1.5), or one adult does not work at all (i.e. patriarchal model with family employment 1). Alternatives refer to trade-offs between leisure and work and define what living wage represents. In every case the total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 3. Extended family Living Wage includes family with three or four children. One adult works full-time and the work intensity of second parent is approximated by national employment rate. 4. Individual Living Wage represents an acceptable standard of living for a single individual working full-time.

Data sources: WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey, World Bank Databank Fertility rate 2010-2014, ILO Estimated participation rate in 2017, FAO Food balance sheet in 2013.

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