Living Wage Series - Sweden - October 2017 - In SEK, per Month

The Living Wage is based on the concept that work should provide an adequate income to cover the necessary living costs of a family. WageIndicator uses prices from the Cost of Living Survey to calculate Living Wage for 60 countries. The Living Wage is an approximate income needed to meet a family’s basic needs including food, housing, transport, health, education, tax deductions and other necessities.

The following table summarises the varying expenditure and income needs for the three commonly occurring family household compositions.

Expenditure and Living Wage calculation (monthly rates in Swedish Krona)

  Typical family   Standard family   Single-adult  
  from to from to from to
Food 6870 8810 7050 9040 1760 2260
Housing 8590 10000 8590 10000 4920 6090
Transport 1200 1580 1200 1580 600 790
Health 410 1020 410 1020 105 255
Education 555 1130 555 1130 0 0
Other costs 880 1130 890 1140 370 470
Total Expenditure 18505 23670 18695 23910 7753 9865
Net Living Wage 10885 13924 10386 13283 7753 9865
Gross Living Wage 14600 18700 13900 17800 10400 13200

Note: For more details see Living Wage FAQ.


Family Living Wages (monthly rates in Swedish Krona)

There is not a single answer to what is the adequate cost of living. The result is complex, as the cost of living varies by household composition, location, and employment pattern. The following table presents the Living Wage estimates for a set of most common family household compositions and under different assumptions about working hours.

  from to
Typical family (two parents + 1.9 children, 1.7 working) 14600 18700
Standard family (two parents + 2 children, 1.8 working) 13900 17800
Two parents and two children, 2 working 12500 16000
Two parents and two children, 1.5 working 16700 21400
Two parents and two children, 1 working 25100 32000
Two parents and three children, 1.7 working 16200 20700
Two parents and four children, 1.7 working 17700 22600
Single-adult without children, 1 working 10400 13200

Note: Results in the table are rounded.


Living Wages in Context (monthly rates in Swedish Krona)

The Minimum Wage is a national legally binding obligation on employers which often make no reference to a living standard. Living Wage describes the adequate living standard. The common goal of the many living wage campaigns currently taking place all over the world is to lift Minimum Wages levels to those of the Living Wages. WageIndicator presents Living Wages jointly with Minimum Wages, aiming to raise awareness concerning the remaining differences in levels. Living Wages are presented in context with other wage indicators including prevailing wages of workers over recent years.

  2014 . 2015 . 2016 . 2017 .
  from to from to from to from to
Minimum wage . . . . . . . .
Living Wage - Single Adult 9150 11500 9790 12200 10000 13100 10400 13200
Living Wage - Typical Family 13400 17300 14100 17900 14300 18700 14600 18700
Real wage of low-skilled worker 13500 18500 14000 19400 14400 19900 16400 21100
Real wage of medium-skilled worker 20200 24700 20500 25400 21300 26300 23700 27500
Real wage of high-skilled worker 26000 32200 25900 32600 27000 33800 30300 36400

Note: Table shows the lowest monthly Minimum Wage in a country, when available. Reported monthly earnings of workers in low-, medium-, and high-skilled occupations are obtained from the voluntary WageIndicator web survey on work and wages. Results in the table are rounded.



Food basket and food prices in Swedish Krona

The food expenditure is the main component of Living Wage and it is determined by the price of food basket. The food prices are taken from WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey which collects the actual prices of all items necessary to calculate the Living Wage. The composition of the food basket is taken from the national food balance sheets published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The food basket is scaled to 2,100 calories per person per day that is the nutritional requirement for good health proposed by World Bank (Handbook on poverty and inequality, 2009).

Food item Grams per day Energy (kcal) Price per kilo from to
Wheat, barley and cereals 177 483 20 40
Rice 11 40 20 25
Meat (beef, pork, poultry) 154 247 80 100
Oils (soyabean, olive, palm) 26 227 . .
Sugar (Raw Equivalent) 72 266 . .
Maize and products 2 6 . .
Milk - Excluding Butter 638 267 8 9
Vegetables, Other 119 32 30 30
Potatoes and products 112 70 6 9
Butter, Ghee 12 88 . .
Groundnuts (Shelled Eq) 13 38 . .
Pulses, Other and products 1 3 . .
Egg (price per 10 eggs) 25 36 16.7 25
Sunflowerseed Oil 5 43 . .
Fish products 60 38 60 60
Beer 104 51 30.3 52.7
Sweeteners, Other 5 11 . .
Beans 0 1 30 30
Sweet potatoes 0 0 20 20
Bananas 15 10 22 25
Soyabeans 0 1 . .
Apples and products 38 10 15 20
Tomatoes and products 43 9 10 30
Onions 14 5 10 12
Oranges, Mandarines 107 19 . .
Peas 2 8 . .
Roots, Other 0 0 8 20
Seeds and kernels 0 5 30 30
Wine 39 27 105 107
Cream 22 42 22.5 30
Olives (including preserved) 2 2 . .
Honey 2 5 . .
Citrus, Other 3 1 20 20
Lemons, Limes and products 5 1 25 30
Grapefruit and products 4 1 20 20
Coffee and products 19 8 50 60

WageIndicator Living Wage background:

The WageIndicator Living Wage is set to provide acceptable living standard to a family of a particular size. WageIndicator presents Living Wages for several household types and working hours which reflect the most frequently found real situations in which people have to make a living: 1. Typical family Living Wage is a baseline estimate that respects the country specific conditions. Typical family is comprised of two adults and the number of children is given by country specific fertility rate (the average number of children a woman is expected to have during her lifespan). One adult is working full-time and the working hours of second adult are approximated by national employment rate. The total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 2. Standard family Living Wage is estimated for a family composed of two adults and two children (referred to as family 2+2). Living wage is calculated under different assumptions about working hours. These include that both adults work full-time (family employment rate is 2), or at least one adult works part-time or half-time (family employment rate is 1.8 and 1.5), or one adult does not work at all (i.e. patriarchal model with family employment 1). Alternatives refer to trade-offs between leisure and work and define what living wage represents. In every case the total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 3. Extended family Living Wage includes family with three or four children. One adult works full-time and the work intensity of second parent is approximated by national employment rate. 4. Individual Living Wage represents an acceptable standard of living for a single individual working full-time.

Data sources: WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey, World Bank Databank Fertility rate 2010-2014, ILO Estimated participation rate in 2017, FAO Food balance sheet in 2013.

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