Living Wage Series - Sweden - August 2017 - In SEK, per Month

The Living Wage is based on the concept that work should provide an adequate income to cover the necessary living costs of a family. WageIndicator calculates Living Wage for around 50 countries based on prices collected within the WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey. The Living Wage calculated by WageIndicator is composed of seven parts: food, housing, transport, health, education, tax and other costs.

WageIndicator presents Living Wages for several household types and working hours to respond to different demands for living wage information: Typical family Living Wage is a baseline estimate that respects the country specific conditions. Family includes two adults and the number of children is given by country specific fertility rate (1.9 children per woman). One parent is working full-time and the working hours of second parent are approximated by national employment rate (66% in 2017). Standard family Living Wage is estimated for a family composed of two adults and two children. One parent is employed full-time and the second parent works 4 days a week it means family employment rate is 1.8. Single-adult Living Wage represents an acceptable standard of living for a single individual working full-time with no dependents.

Expenditure and Living Wage calculation (monthly rates in SEK)

  Typical family   Standard family   Single-adult  
  from to from to from to
Food 7150 9060 7360 9280 1840 2320
Housing 5100 5630 5100 5630 3580 4500
Transport 1130 1580 1130 1580 565 790
Health 405 1050 405 1050 101 263
Education 550 1120 550 1120 0 0
Other costs 715 920 725 935 305 395
Total Expenditure 15050 19360 15270 19595 6391 8268
Net Living Wage 8853 11388 8483 10886 6391 8268
Gross Living Wage 11774 15146 11283 14479 8500 10996

Note: For more details see Living Wage FAQ.

Family Living Wages (monthly rates in SEK)

There is not a single answer to what is the adequate cost of living. The result is complex, as the cost of living varies by household composition, location, and employment pattern. The following table presents the Living Wage estimates for a set of common household compositions and under different assumptions about working hours.

  from to
Typical family (two parents + 1.9 children, 1.7 working) 11800 15200
Standard family (two parents + 2 children, 1.8 working) 11300 14500
Two parents and two children, 2 working 10200 13000
Two parents and two children, 1.5 working 13500 17400
Two parents and two children, 1 working 20300 26100
Two parents and three children, 1.7 working 13500 17200
Two parents and four children, 1.7 working 15000 19200
Single-adult without children, 1 working 8500 11000

Note: Results in the table are rounded.

Living Wages in Context (monthly rates in SEK)

Living Wages are presented in context with other wage indicators including minimum wage, poverty line, and various prevailing wages of workers. Table shows the development of income levels over two years.

7-12/20151-6/20167-12/20161-6/2017
  from to from to from to from to
Minimum wage . . . . . . . .
Living Wage - Typical Family . . . . . . 11800 15200
Living Wage - Single Adult . . . . . . 8500 11000
Real wage of low-skilled worker 15300 21100 14600 20000 15300 20600 15300 20400
Real wage of medium-skilled worker 23000 27200 22900 27100 23700 27800 23500 27500
Real wage of high-skilled worker 29300 35800 29300 35600 30400 36500 30200 36400

Note: Reported monthly earnings of workers in low-, medium-, and high-skilled occupations are obtained from the voluntary WageIndicator web surveys on work and wages over the last 36 months. Results in the table are rounded.

Living Wage model diet and food prices in SEK

The food expenditure is the main component of Living Wage and it is determined by the price of food basket. The food prices are taken from WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey which collects the actual prices of all items necessary to calculate the Living Wage. The composition of the food basket is taken from the national food balance sheets published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The food basket is scaled to 2,100 calories per person per day that is the nutritional requirement for good health proposed by World Bank (Handbook on poverty and inequality, 2009).

Food itemGrams per dayEnergy (kcal)Price per kilo fromto
Wheat, barley and cereals 177 483 20 40
Rice 11 40 20 25
Meat (beef, pork, poultry) 154 247 80 100
Oils (soyabean, olive, palm) 26 227 . .
Sugar (Raw Equivalent) 72 266 . .
Maize and products 2 6 . .
Milk - Excluding Butter 638 267 8 9
Vegetables, Other 119 32 30 30
Potatoes and products 112 70 6 9
Butter, Ghee 12 88 . .
Groundnuts (Shelled Eq) 13 38 . .
Pulses, Other and products 1 3 . .
Egg (price per 10 eggs) 25 36 333 25
Sunflowerseed Oil 5 43 . .
Fish products 60 38 60 60
Beer 104 51 30.3 52.7
Sweeteners, Other 5 11 . .
Beans 0 1 30 30
Sweet potatoes 0 0 20 20
Bananas 15 10 22 25
Soyabeans 0 1 . .
Apples and products 38 10 15 20
Tomatoes and products 43 9 10 30
Onions 14 5 10 12
Oranges, Mandarines 107 19 . .
Peas 2 8 . .
Roots, Other 0 0 8 20
Seeds and kernels 0 5 30 30
Wine 39 27 105 107
Cream 22 42 22.5 30
Olives (including preserved) 2 2 . .
Honey 2 5 . .
Citrus, Other 3 1 20 20
Lemons, Limes and products 5 1 25 30
Grapefruit and products 4 1 20 20
Coffee and products 19 8 50 60

Data sources:

Living Wage FAQ.

WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey

World Bank Databank, Fertility rate – average births per woman in years 2010-2014

ILO, Estimated participation rate in 2017

FAO, Food balance sheet in 2013 

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