Living Wage Series - Spain, August 2017 - EUR per Month

Living wages, Wages in context - Spain

The Living Wage is based on the concept that work should provide an adequate income to cover the necessary living costs of a family. WageIndicator calculates Living Wage for around 50 countries based on prices collected within the WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey. The Living Wage calculated by WageIndicator is composed of seven parts: food, housing, transport, health, education, tax and other costs.

WageIndicator presents Living Wages for several household types and working hours to respond to different demands for living wage information: Typical family Living Wage is a baseline estimate that respects the country specific conditions. Family includes two adults and the number of children is given by country specific fertility rate (1.3 children per woman). One parent is working full-time and the working hours of second parent are approximated by national employment rate (61% in 2017). Standard family Living Wage is estimated for a family composed of two adults and two children. One parent is employed full-time and the second parent works 4 days a week it means family employment rate is 1.8. Single-adult Living Wage represents an acceptable standard of living for a single individual working full-time with no dependents.

Expenditure and Living Wage calculation (monthly rates in EUR)

  Typical family   Standard family   Single-adult  
  from to from to from to
Food 315 420 380 500 95 125
Housing 350 350 350 350 300 305
Transport 70 100 70 100 35 50
Health 50 60 50 60 13 15
Education 50 100 50 100 0 0
Other costs 42 52 45 56 22 25
Total Expenditure 877 1082 945 1166 465 520
Net Living Wage 548 676 525 648 464 520
Gross Living Wage 652 805 625 771 553 619

Note: For more details see Living Wage FAQ.

Family Living Wages (monthly rates in EUR)

There is not a single answer to what is the adequate cost of living. The result is complex, as the cost of living varies by household composition, location, and employment pattern. The following table presents the Living Wage estimates for a set of common household compositions and under different assumptions about working hours.

  from to
Typical family (two parents + 1.3 children, 1.6 working) 650 805
Standard family (two parents + 2 children, 1.8 working) 625 770
Two parents and two children, 2 working 560 695
Two parents and two children, 1.5 working 750 925
Two parents and two children, 1 working 1130 1390
Two parents and three children, 1.6 working 775 965
Two parents and four children, 1.6 working 850 1060
Single-adult without children, 1 working 555 620

Note: Results in the table are rounded.

Living Wages in Context (monthly rates in EUR)

Living Wages are presented in context with other wage indicators including minimum wage, poverty line, and various prevailing wages of workers. Table shows the development of income levels over two years.

7-12/20151-6/20167-12/20161-6/2017
  from to from to from to from to
Minimum wage 756 . 764 . 764 . 826 .
Living Wage - Typical Family 690 935 625 845 650 840 650 805
Living Wage - Single Adult 570 685 530 665 550 655 555 620
Real wage of low-skilled worker 720 910 765 945 750 905 805 960
Real wage of medium-skilled worker 1030 1290 1000 1300 980 1250 1030 1280
Real wage of high-skilled worker 1560 2000 1510 2020 1490 1960 1490 1970

Note: Reported monthly earnings of workers in low-, medium-, and high-skilled occupations are obtained from the voluntary WageIndicator web surveys on work and wages over the last 36 months. Results in the table are rounded.

Living Wage model diet and food prices in EUR

The food expenditure is the main component of Living Wage and it is determined by the price of food basket. The food prices are taken from WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey which collects the actual prices of all items necessary to calculate the Living Wage. The composition of the food basket is taken from the national food balance sheets published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The food basket is scaled to 2,100 calories per person per day that is the nutritional requirement for good health proposed by World Bank (Handbook on poverty and inequality, 2009).

Food itemGrams per dayEnergy (kcal)Price per kilo fromto
Wheat, barley and cereals 178 471 1.4 2
Rice 15 58 .8 1
Meat (beef, pork, poultry) 184 263 5 6.6
Oils (soyabean, olive, palm) 30 260 3 3.5
Sugar (Raw Equivalent) 56 198 1 1
Maize and products 4 10 2 3
Milk - Excluding Butter 305 164 .7 .9
Vegetables, Other 110 29 1.6 2
Potatoes and products 112 71 .7 .9
Butter, Ghee 4 28 2 3
Groundnuts (Shelled Eq) 14 36 2.4 3
Pulses, Other and products 7 22 1 2
Egg (price per 10 eggs) 25 35 20 1.3
Sunflowerseed Oil 22 193 1.2 1.4
Fish products 79 58 7 9.9
Beer 139 68 2 3
Sweeteners, Other 1 3 .7 1
Beans 2 6 .5 1
Sweet potatoes 0 0 1 2
Bananas 12 7 1.3 1.7
Soyabeans 0 0 1.6 3.5
Yams 0 0 .5 .5
Apples and products 19 9 1 1.5
Tomatoes and products 77 14 1 1.5
Onions 34 14 .6 1
Oranges, Mandarines 43 14 1 1.5
Plantains 1 1 1 1.7
Peas 1 5 1.7 2
Roots, Other 0 0 1 2
Seeds and kernels 3 9 2 3
Wine 39 26 4 5.3
Pineapples and products 9 4 . .
Cream 4 7 3 6
Olives (including preserved) 6 7 3 4
Honey 1 3 3 5
Citrus, Other 0 0 1 1.3
Lemons, Limes and products 7 1 1 1.5
Tea (including mate) 0 0 3 3.5
Grapefruit and products 0 0 1 1.4
Coffee and products 7 3 2 3

Data sources:

Living Wage FAQ.

WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey

World Bank Databank, Fertility rate – average births per woman in years 2010-2014

ILO, Estimated participation rate in 2017

FAO, Food balance sheet in 2013 

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