Living Wage in Mozambique - October 2017 - Per month in MZN

The Living Wage is based on the concept that work should provide an adequate income to cover the necessary living costs of a family. WageIndicator uses prices from the Cost of Living Survey to calculate Living Wage for 60 countries. The Living Wage is an approximate income needed to meet a family’s basic needs including food, housing, transport, health, education, tax deductions and other necessities.

The following table summarises the varying expenditure and income needs for the three commonly occurring family household compositions.

Expenditure and Living Wage calculation (monthly rates in Mozambique Metical)

  Typical family   Standard family   Single-adult  
  from to from to from to
Food 7480 10100 4050 5470 1010 1370
Housing 3600 6000 3600 6000 2000 3410
Transport 600 1000 600 1000 300 500
Health 500 1000 500 1000 125 250
Education 500 2750 500 2750 0 0
Other costs 635 1050 460 810 170 275
Total Expenditure 13315 21900 9710 17030 3605 5805
Net Living Wage 7397 12167 5394 9461 3605 5805
Gross Living Wage 7770 12800 5670 9940 3790 6100

Note: For more details see Living Wage FAQ.

Family Living Wages (monthly rates in Mozambique Metical)

There is not a single answer to what is the adequate cost of living. The result is complex, as the cost of living varies by household composition, location, and employment pattern. The following table presents the Living Wage estimates for a set of most common family household compositions and under different assumptions about working hours.

  from to
Typical family (two parents + 5.4 children, 1.8 working) 7770 12800
Standard family (two parents + 2 children, 1.8 working) 5670 9940
Two parents and two children, 2 working 5100 8940
Two parents and two children, 1.5 working 6800 11900
Two parents and two children, 1 working 10200 17900
Two parents and three children, 1.8 working 6290 10800
Two parents and four children, 1.8 working 6910 11600
Single-adult without children, 1 working 3790 6100

Note: Results in the table are rounded.

Living Wages in Context (monthly rates in Mozambique Metical)

The Minimum Wage is a national legally binding obligation on employers which often make no reference to a living standard. Living Wage describes the adequate living standard. The common goal of the many living wage campaigns currently taking place all over the world is to lift Minimum Wages levels to those of the Living Wages. WageIndicator presents Living Wages jointly with Minimum Wages, aiming to raise awareness concerning the remaining differences in levels. Living Wages are presented in context with other wage indicators including prevailing wages of workers over recent years.

  2014 . 2015 . 2016 . 2017 .
  from to from to from to from to
Minimum wage 3010 3010 3196 3196 3298 3298 3298 3298
Living Wage - Single Adult . . . . . . 3790 6100
Living Wage - Typical Family . . . . . . 7770 12800
Real wage of low-skilled worker 3280 4610 4810 8650 5540 9410 6360 10400
Real wage of medium-skilled worker 4230 6210 7280 13600 7990 14300 9040 15300
Real wage of high-skilled worker 5990 9410 11000 21600 12400 22900 13800 24600

Note: Table shows the lowest monthly Minimum Wage in a country, when available. Reported monthly earnings of workers in low-, medium-, and high-skilled occupations are obtained from the voluntary WageIndicator web survey on work and wages. Results in the table are rounded.


Food basket and food prices in Mozambique Metical

The food expenditure is the main component of Living Wage and it is determined by the price of food basket. The food prices are taken from WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey which collects the actual prices of all items necessary to calculate the Living Wage. The composition of the food basket is taken from the national food balance sheets published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The food basket is scaled to 2,100 calories per person per day that is the nutritional requirement for good health proposed by World Bank (Handbook on poverty and inequality, 2009).

Food itemGrams per dayEnergy (kcal)Price per kilo fromto
Wheat, barley and cereals 69 189 14 30
Rice 59 214 25 32
Meat (beef, pork, poultry) 23 64 130 150
Oils (soyabean, olive, palm) 21 183 80 100
Sugar (Raw Equivalent) 30 101 60 100
Maize and products 139 406 20 30
Milk - Excluding Butter 12 7 50 65
Vegetables, Other 18 4 30 50
Potatoes and products 20 15 25 35
Butter, Ghee 1 6 100 145
Groundnuts (Shelled Eq) 8 19 35 50
Pulses, Other and products 22 75 30 50
Cassava and products 575 626 20 25
Egg (price per 10 eggs) 4 6 50 50
Sunflowerseed Oil 1 13 75 98
Fish products 20 12 100 150
Beer 14 6 90 110
Sweeteners, Other 0 1 35 40
Beans 13 45 45 50
Sweet potatoes 79 76 20 30
Bananas 34 20 25 35
Soyabeans 0 0 30 50
Apples and products 0 0 50 70
Tomatoes and products 21 5 30 45
Onions 8 3 30 37.5
Oranges, Mandarines 5 1 40 50
Roots, Other 1 1 35 50
Seeds and kernels 0 0 50 80
Wine 1 1 200 267
Cream 0 0 85 120
Olives (including preserved) 0 0 100 150
Honey 0 0 100 100
Citrus, Other 0 0 50 50
Lemons, Limes and products 0 0 30 50
Tea (including mate) 2 1 60 100
Grapefruit and products 1 0 80 125
Coffee and products 0 0 85 120

WageIndicator Living Wage background:

The WageIndicator Living Wage is set to provide acceptable living standard to a family of a particular size. WageIndicator presents Living Wages for several household types and working hours which reflect the most frequently found real situations in which people have to make a living: 1. Typical family Living Wage is a baseline estimate that respects the country specific conditions. Typical family is comprised of two adults and the number of children is given by country specific fertility rate (the average number of children a woman is expected to have during her lifespan). One adult is working full-time and the working hours of second adult are approximated by national employment rate. The total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 2. Standard family Living Wage is estimated for a family composed of two adults and two children (referred to as family 2+2). Living wage is calculated under different assumptions about working hours. These include that both adults work full-time (family employment rate is 2), or at least one adult works part-time or half-time (family employment rate is 1.8 and 1.5), or one adult does not work at all (i.e. patriarchal model with family employment 1). Alternatives refer to trade-offs between leisure and work and define what living wage represents. In every case the total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 3. Extended family Living Wage includes family with three or four children. One adult works full-time and the work intensity of second parent is approximated by national employment rate. 4. Individual Living Wage represents an acceptable standard of living for a single individual working full-time.

Data sources: WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey, World Bank Databank Fertility rate 2010-2014, ILO Estimated participation rate in 2017, FAO Food balance sheet in 2013.

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