Living Wage Series - Kazakhstan - January 2018 - In Tenge, per Month

Living wages, Wages in context - Kazakhstan

The Living Wage is based on the concept that work should provide an adequate income to cover the necessary living costs of a family. WageIndicator uses prices from the Cost of Living Survey to calculate Living Wage in more than 60 countries. The Living Wage is an approximate income needed to meet a family’s basic needs including food, housing, transport, health, education, tax deductions and other necessities.

The following table summarises the varying expenditure and income needs for the three commonly occurring family household compositions.

Expenditure and Living Wage calculation (monthly rates in Tenge)

  Typical family Standard family Single-adult
  from-to from-to from-to
Food 61300-82500 52100-70200 13000-17600
Housing 42500-68000 42500-68000 30500-45300
Transport 7600-12000 7600-12000 3800-6000
Health 5000-10000 5000-10000 1250-2500
Education 5000-10000 5000-10000 0
Other costs 6070-9130 5610-8510 2430-3570
Total Expenditure 127470-191630 117810-178710 50980-74970
Net Living Wage 70817-106461 65450-99283 50980-74970
Gross Living Wage 84300-126700 77900-118200 60700-89200

Note: For more details see Living Wage FAQ.


Family Living Wages (monthly rates in Tenge)

There is not a single answer to what is the adequate cost of living. The result is complex, as the cost of living varies by household composition, location, and employment pattern. The following table presents the Living Wage estimates for a set of most common family household compositions and under different assumptions about working hours.

  from-to
Typical family (two parents + 2.7 children, 1.8 working) 84300-126700
Standard family (two parents + 2 children, 1.8 working) 77900-118200
Two parents and two children, 2 working 70100-106300
Two parents and two children, 1.5 working 93500-141800
Two parents and two children, 1 working 140200-212700
Two parents and three children, 1.8 working 87000-130400
Two parents and four children, 1.8 working 96000-142600
Single-adult without children, 1 working 60700-89200

Note: Results in the table are rounded.


Living Wages in Context (monthly rates in Tenge)

The Minimum Wage is a national legally binding obligation on employers which often make no reference to a living standard. Living Wage describes the adequate living standard. The common goal of the many living wage campaigns currently taking place all over the world is to lift Minimum Wages levels to those of the Living Wages. WageIndicator presents Living Wages jointly with Minimum Wages, aiming to raise awareness concerning the remaining differences in levels. Living Wages are presented in context with other wage indicators including prevailing wages of workers over recent years.

  2015 2016 2017 2018
Minimum wage 21364 22859 24459 24459
Living Wage - Single Adult 62200-87100 52900-81700 56100-85700 60700-89200
Living Wage - Typical Family 88500-129500 77000-119100 79300-122700 84300-126700
Real wage of low-skilled worker 39800-59300 44000-65900 42100-63700 48800-73200
Real wage of medium-skilled worker 61000-89500 65700-96200 65500-98000 77800-115100
Real wage of high-skilled worker 75500-109800 80900-117700 76800-113400 93700-137400

Note: Table shows the lowest monthly Minimum Wage in a country, when available. Reported monthly earnings of workers in low-, medium-, and high-skilled occupations are obtained from the voluntary WageIndicator web survey on work and wages. Results in the table are rounded.


Food basket and food prices in Tenge

The food expenditure is the main component of Living Wage and it is determined by the price of food basket. The food prices are taken from WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey which collects the actual prices of all items necessary to calculate the Living Wage. The composition of the food basket is taken from the national food balance sheets published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The food basket is scaled to 2,100 calories per person per day that is the nutritional requirement for good health proposed by World Bank (Handbook on poverty and inequality, 2009).

Food itemGrams per dayEnergy (kcal)Price per kilo
Wheat, barley and cereals products 196 548 130-160
Rice 14 49 190-220
Meat (beef, pork, poultry) 135 239 900-1200
Oils (soyabean, olive, palm) 6 52 300-380
Sugar (Raw Equivalent) 51 186 180-220
Maize and products 2 4 200-300
Milk - Excluding Butter 533 321 170-200
Vegetables, Other 259 58 180-350
Potatoes and products 206 138 90-100
Butter, Ghee 5 37 800-1200
Groundnuts (Shelled Eq) 10 26 650-950
Pulses, Other and products 0 0 200-380
Cassava and products 0 0 350-500
Egg (price per 10 eggs) 15 22 162-200
Sunflowerseed Oil 33 295 350-400
Fish products 10 7 500-700
Beer 57 28 303-400
Sweeteners, Other 1 5 170-210
Sweet potatoes 0 0 200-400
Bananas 5 3 300-350
Soyabeans 0 0 300-500
Apples and products 78 36 250-300
Tomatoes and products 84 16 300-450
Onions 23 7 85-109
Oranges, Mandarines 15 4 400-500
Plantains 1 1 230-350
Peas 1 3 130-180
Roots, Other 0 0 150-300
Seeds and kernels 1 5 450-990
Wine 5 3 1070-1330
Pineapples and products 1 1 .-.
Cream 2 3 500-876
Olives (including preserved) 0 1 1000-1200
Honey 0 1 1300-1600
Citrus, Other 0 0 300-400
Lemons, Limes and products 1 0 400-500
Tea (including mate) 4 1 800-1111
Grapefruit and products 1 0 500-600
Coffee and products 2 1 1500-2000


WageIndicator Living Wage background:

The WageIndicator Living Wage is set to provide acceptable living standard to a family of a particular size. WageIndicator presents Living Wages for several household types and working hours which reflect the most frequently found real situations in which people have to make a living: 1. Typical family Living Wage is a baseline estimate that respects the country specific conditions. Typical family is comprised of two adults and the number of children is given by country specific fertility rate (the average number of children a woman is expected to have during her lifespan). One adult is working full-time and the working hours of second adult are approximated by national employment rate. The total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 2. Standard family Living Wage is estimated for a family composed of two adults and two children (referred to as family 2+2). Living wage is calculated under different assumptions about working hours. These include that both adults work full-time (family employment rate is 2), or at least one adult works part-time or half-time (family employment rate is 1.8 and 1.5), or one adult does not work at all (i.e. patriarchal model with family employment 1). Alternatives refer to trade-offs between leisure and work and define what living wage represents. In every case the total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 3. Extended family Living Wage includes family with three or four children. One adult works full-time and the work intensity of second parent is approximated by national employment rate. 4. Individual Living Wage represents an acceptable standard of living for a single individual working full-time.

Data sources: WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey, World Bank Databank Fertility rate 2010-2014, ILO Estimated participation rate in 2017, FAO Food balance sheet in 2013.

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