Living Wage Series - Italy - October 2017 - In Euro, per Month

The Living Wage is based on the concept that work should provide an adequate income to cover the necessary living costs of a family. WageIndicator uses prices from the Cost of Living Survey to calculate Living Wage for 60 countries. The Living Wage is an approximate income needed to meet a family’s basic needs including food, housing, transport, health, education, tax deductions and other necessities.

The following table summarises the varying expenditure and income needs for the three commonly occurring family household compositions.

Expenditure and Living Wage calculation (monthly rates in Euro)

  Typical family   Standard family   Single-adult  
  from to from to from to
Food 350 480 410 565 105 140
Housing 500 755 500 755 300 425
Transport 70 70 70 70 35 35
Health 50 100 50 100 13 25
Education 83 100 83 100 0 0
Other costs 53 75 56 80 23 31
Total Expenditure 1106 1580 1169 1670 476 656
Net Living Wage 737 1053 649 928 476 656
Gross Living Wage 960 1370 845 1210 620 855

Note: For more details see Living Wage FAQ.

Family Living Wages (monthly rates in Euro)

There is not a single answer to what is the adequate cost of living. The result is complex, as the cost of living varies by household composition, location, and employment pattern. The following table presents the Living Wage estimates for a set of most common family household compositions and under different assumptions about working hours.

  from to
Typical family (two parents + 1.4 children, 1.5 working) 960 1370
Standard family (two parents + 2 children, 1.8 working) 845 1210
Two parents and two children, 2 working 760 1090
Two parents and two children, 1.5 working 1020 1450
Two parents and two children, 1 working 1520 2170
Two parents and three children, 1.5 working 1110 1580
Two parents and four children, 1.5 working 1200 1710
Single-adult without children, 1 working 620 855

Note: Results in the table are rounded.

Living Wages in Context (monthly rates in Euro)

The Minimum Wage is a national legally binding obligation on employers which often make no reference to a living standard. Living Wage describes the adequate living standard. The common goal of the many living wage campaigns currently taking place all over the world is to lift Minimum Wages levels to those of the Living Wages. WageIndicator presents Living Wages jointly with Minimum Wages, aiming to raise awareness concerning the remaining differences in levels. Living Wages are presented in context with other wage indicators including prevailing wages of workers over recent years.

  2014 . 2015 . 2016 . 2017 .
  from to from to from to from to
Minimum wage . . . . . . . .
Living Wage - Single Adult 715 995 690 940 615 875 620 855
Living Wage - Typical Family 1210 1720 1110 1580 965 1410 960 1370
Real wage of low-skilled worker 1050 1350 1070 1390 1040 1350 880 1130
Real wage of medium-skilled worker 1580 2000 1580 2000 1470 1870 1270 1600
Real wage of high-skilled worker 2080 2680 2060 2670 1960 2560 1850 2390

Note: Table shows the lowest monthly Minimum Wage in a country, when available. Reported monthly earnings of workers in low-, medium-, and high-skilled occupations are obtained from the voluntary WageIndicator web survey on work and wages. Results in the table are rounded.


Food basket and food prices in Euro

The food expenditure is the main component of Living Wage and it is determined by the price of food basket. The food prices are taken from WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey which collects the actual prices of all items necessary to calculate the Living Wage. The composition of the food basket is taken from the national food balance sheets published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The food basket is scaled to 2,100 calories per person per day that is the nutritional requirement for good health proposed by World Bank (Handbook on poverty and inequality, 2009).

Food itemGrams per dayEnergy (kcal)Price per kilo fromto
Wheat, barley and cereals 246 640 2 3
Rice 10 36 1.2 1.9
Meat (beef, pork, poultry) 144 227 6 9
Oils (soyabean, olive, palm) 38 334 2 4
Sugar (Raw Equivalent) 51 181 .8 1
Maize and products 7 20 1.5 3.5
Milk - Excluding Butter 410 165 1 1.1
Vegetables, Other 160 40 1.3 2
Potatoes and products 63 40 .7 1
Butter, Ghee 14 85 5 5.5
Groundnuts (Shelled Eq) 13 30 . .
Pulses, Other and products 4 13 . .
Egg (price per 10 eggs) 22 32 1.6 2
Sunflowerseed Oil 8 65 1.2 1.3
Fish products 42 29 12 15.5
Beer 46 22 2.7 4.8
Sweeteners, Other 2 5 .8 1.1
Beans 3 11 1.9 3
Sweet potatoes 0 1 2 2
Bananas 16 10 1.4 2
Soyabeans 0 0 1.3 2.3
Yams 0 0 2.3 2.3
Apples and products 28 13 1 1.5
Tomatoes and products 44 8 1.5 2
Onions 10 4 1 1
Oranges, Mandarines 64 22 1.1 2
Plantains 0 0 1.2 1.9
Peas 2 8 2 2.2
Roots, Other 0 0 1 2
Seeds and kernels 0 1 5 5.4
Wine 51 35 4 6.5
Pineapples and products 5 2 . .
Cream 5 10 3.2 8
Olives (including preserved) 6 6 5 8
Honey 0 1 6 9
Citrus, Other 0 0 1 1
Lemons, Limes and products 9 2 1 1.5
Tea (including mate) 0 0 4 6.4
Grapefruit and products 1 1 1 1.3
Coffee and products 9 4 5 6.5

WageIndicator Living Wage background:

The WageIndicator Living Wage is set to provide acceptable living standard to a family of a particular size. WageIndicator presents Living Wages for several household types and working hours which reflect the most frequently found real situations in which people have to make a living: 1. Typical family Living Wage is a baseline estimate that respects the country specific conditions. Typical family is comprised of two adults and the number of children is given by country specific fertility rate (the average number of children a woman is expected to have during her lifespan). One adult is working full-time and the working hours of second adult are approximated by national employment rate. The total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 2. Standard family Living Wage is estimated for a family composed of two adults and two children (referred to as family 2+2). Living wage is calculated under different assumptions about working hours. These include that both adults work full-time (family employment rate is 2), or at least one adult works part-time or half-time (family employment rate is 1.8 and 1.5), or one adult does not work at all (i.e. patriarchal model with family employment 1). Alternatives refer to trade-offs between leisure and work and define what living wage represents. In every case the total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 3. Extended family Living Wage includes family with three or four children. One adult works full-time and the work intensity of second parent is approximated by national employment rate. 4. Individual Living Wage represents an acceptable standard of living for a single individual working full-time.

Data sources: WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey, World Bank Databank Fertility rate 2010-2014, ILO Estimated participation rate in 2017, FAO Food balance sheet in 2013.

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