Angola - Living Wage Series, October 2017. In Kwanza per Month

The Living Wage is based on the concept that work should provide an adequate income to cover the necessary living costs of a family. WageIndicator uses prices from the Cost of Living Survey to calculate Living Wage for 60 countries. The Living Wage is an approximate income needed to meet a family’s basic needs including food, housing, transport, health, education, tax deductions and other necessities.

The following table summarises the varying expenditure and income needs for the three commonly occurring family household compositions.

Expenditure and Living Wage calculation (monthly rates in Kwanza)

  Typical family   Standard family   Single-adult  
  from to from to from to
Food 106000 146600 51700 71500 12900 17900
Housing 30000 35000 30000 35000 15000 26800
Transport 1000 1100 1000 1100 500 550
Health 20000 13500 20000 13500 5000 3390
Education 17000 19000 17000 19000 0 0
Other costs 8700 10800 5990 7010 1670 2430
Total Expenditure 182700 226000 125690 147110 35070 51055
Net Living Wage 101500 125556 69828 81728 35070 51055
Gross Living Wage 112700 139400 77500 90700 38900 56700

Note: For more details see Living Wage FAQ.


Family Living Wages (monthly rates in Kwanza)

There is not a single answer to what is the adequate cost of living. The result is complex, as the cost of living varies by household composition, location, and employment pattern. The following table presents the Living Wage estimates for a set of most common family household compositions and under different assumptions about working hours.

  from to
Typical family (two parents + 6.2 children, 1.8 working) 112700 139400
Standard family (two parents + 2 children, 1.8 working) 77500 90700
Two parents and two children, 2 working 69800 81700
Two parents and two children, 1.5 working 93000 108900
Two parents and two children, 1 working 139500 163300
Two parents and three children, 1.8 working 85900 102300
Two parents and four children, 1.8 working 94200 113800
Single-adult without children, 1 working 38900 56700

Note: Results in the table are rounded.


Living Wages in Context (monthly rates in Kwanza)

The Minimum Wage is a national legally binding obligation on employers which often make no reference to a living standard. Living Wage describes the adequate living standard. The common goal of the many living wage campaigns currently taking place all over the world is to lift Minimum Wages levels to those of the Living Wages. WageIndicator presents Living Wages jointly with Minimum Wages, aiming to raise awareness concerning the remaining differences in levels. Living Wages are presented in context with other wage indicators including prevailing wages of workers over recent years.

  2014 . 2015 . 2016 . 2017 .
  from to from to from to from to
Minimum wage 11854 15003 15003 15003 15003 15003 15003 15003
Living Wage - Single Adult . . . . . . 38900 56700
Living Wage - Typical Family . . . . . . 112700 139400
Real wage of low-skilled worker 26500 50600 32900 60900 32400 45900 37900 75300
Real wage of medium-skilled worker 48900 96200 59900 110500 71800 119600 68600 138500
Real wage of high-skilled worker 82700 166100 100500 189100 114800 191000 110100 227500

Note: Table shows the lowest monthly Minimum Wage in a country, when available. Reported monthly earnings of workers in low-, medium-, and high-skilled occupations are obtained from the voluntary WageIndicator web survey on work and wages. Results in the table are rounded.



Food basket and food prices in Kwanza

The food expenditure is the main component of Living Wage and it is determined by the price of food basket. The food prices are taken from WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey which collects the actual prices of all items necessary to calculate the Living Wage. The composition of the food basket is taken from the national food balance sheets published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The food basket is scaled to 2,100 calories per person per day that is the nutritional requirement for good health proposed by World Bank (Handbook on poverty and inequality, 2009).

Food item Grams per day Energy (kcal) Price per kilo from to
Wheat, barley and cereals 100 258 150 230
Rice 19 71 150 200
Meat (beef, pork, poultry) 89 166 600 1000
Oils (soyabean, olive, palm) 21 183 480 700
Sugar (Raw Equivalent) 36 119 250 400
Maize and products 92 293 200 250
Milk - Excluding Butter 29 17 200 245
Vegetables, Other 149 30 300 400
Potatoes and products 48 35 200 200
Butter, Ghee 1 10 300 400
Groundnuts (Shelled Eq) 6 29 230 300
Cassava and products 470 486 200 300
Egg (price per 10 eggs) 3 3 350 499
Sunflowerseed Oil 1 4 500 900
Fish products 36 22 800 1205
Beer 134 58 200 300
Sweeteners, Other 0 0 165 200
Beans 21 70 250 300
Sweet potatoes 117 112 200 300
Bananas 128 76 200 300
Soyabeans 1 4 200 300
Apples and products 2 1 300 450
Tomatoes and products 11 3 200 300
Onions 1 0 150 200
Oranges, Mandarines 1 0 250 320
Roots, Other 0 0 200 300
Seeds and kernels 0 2 352 450
Wine 11 8 973 1067
Pineapples and products 48 22 . .
Honey 3 8 800 1200
Citrus, Other 30 9 390 500
Tea (including mate) 0 0 150 300
Coffee and products 1 1 250 400

WageIndicator Living Wage background:

The WageIndicator Living Wage is set to provide acceptable living standard to a family of a particular size. WageIndicator presents Living Wages for several household types and working hours which reflect the most frequently found real situations in which people have to make a living: 1. Typical family Living Wage is a baseline estimate that respects the country specific conditions. Typical family is comprised of two adults and the number of children is given by country specific fertility rate (the average number of children a woman is expected to have during her lifespan). One adult is working full-time and the working hours of second adult are approximated by national employment rate. The total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 2. Standard family Living Wage is estimated for a family composed of two adults and two children (referred to as family 2+2). Living wage is calculated under different assumptions about working hours. These include that both adults work full-time (family employment rate is 2), or at least one adult works part-time or half-time (family employment rate is 1.8 and 1.5), or one adult does not work at all (i.e. patriarchal model with family employment 1). Alternatives refer to trade-offs between leisure and work and define what living wage represents. In every case the total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 3. Extended family Living Wage includes family with three or four children. One adult works full-time and the work intensity of second parent is approximated by national employment rate. 4. Individual Living Wage represents an acceptable standard of living for a single individual working full-time.

Data sources: WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey, World Bank Databank Fertility rate 2010-2014, ILO Estimated participation rate in 2017, FAO Food balance sheet in 2013.

Cite this page: © WageIndicator 2017 - WageIndicator.org - Angola - Living Wage Series, October 2017. In Kwanza per Month