Wages in the food chain in Mozambique

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This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey of the labour force, conducted between the 27th of May and the 1st of June 2013 in all provinces of Mozambique. In total 1,679 persons were interviewed; 53% were men, 47% women and 43% were under 30 years old. The workers live in households with on average 4 members. Half of the workers live with a partner and children. Only 5% of workers followed no formal education, 14% stopped at elementary education first or second cycle and 17% followed basic secondary school. On average, the workers have worked for 9.6 years. Rating their satisfaction with life-as-a-whole on a scale from 1=dissatisfied to 10=satisfied, the interviewees score a 5.3 on average.


Up to 17% work in education and research, followed by 14% in the healthcare, caring services and social work. Security, cleaning and homework rank third and fourth is construction and technical consultancy. This report explicitly addresses the work in food chain. By definition, all workers in agriculture, forestry and fishing are in the food chain, as are two out of three workers in manufacturing industry, four in ten in the wholesale and retail industry and four in ten in transportation and storage. In accommodation and food service activities, this is slightly over half.


Up to 19% of the workers are self-employed. Four in ten workers are employees with a permanent contract, nearly three in ten workers have fixed-term contracts, whereas 14% have no contract at all. Women are more likely to work without a contract. Older workers are more likely to have a permanent contract or be self-employed, whereas young people are more likely to work on fixed term contracts. Almost five in ten people work in an organization with 10 or fewer employees, 28% work in an organization with 11-50 employees, 13% work in businesses of 51 to 100 employees and 14% work for businesses employing over a 100 people. Those working in the food chain work predominantly in small firms (49%), as do the low educated (60%).


Almost one in four workers are employed as service and sales workers. Workers in the food chain are heavily overrepresented in this occupational category. One in five work in the professional category, predominantly as teachers. Workers in the food chain are more often found among the skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers. Women much more often work in the professional category (23% versus 17% for men), while men are overrepresented among plant and machine operators (8% versus 2%).